In recent data gathered by publishers and in consumer related studies of fiction and nonfiction books, even in third world countries where people are basically striving to rise above economic deficiencies and problems, it is still leadership books remain which are the most sellingbest sellers (Nelson, 2003). Second to such leadership books are management related books. These management related books are also in the top selling lists of publisher. These books could be identified with bold screaming titles and covers with the faces of popular leadership figures of respected companies.
An important observation to point out in realizing this is that the just not so long ago, such leadership books and management titles were not so popular among general consumers. What had been popular, on the other hand, are books about social realism and various academic disciplines. Perhaps this could simply point as a direction to the fact that as we move further and further from the previous world wars and other dictatorial time frames, man is now again focusing towards capitalism and self-improvement.
When before, the primary objective of most writers and therefore most readers was to change the world, now, the thingsa primary concern that preoccupies that run into the minds of many is simply getting rich. It is not to say however that most leadership books out there offer rather murky pools ethics. In fact, the reason why many leadership books are being pushed to the best-seller list of various companies is because they promote success through the use and practice of values and ethics (Cavanagh, 2005).
However, we could not avoid deny the fact that many such books are also related to Nietzschean concepts of self-realization and selfishness, focusing on the social philosophy of marginal utilitarianism and utility maximization. Simply put, although many of the leadership books and management publications as of today highlight the existence and use of respectable values, many also promotes selfishness and a desire simply to get rich, no matter what the cost.
In fact, just a few months ago, a book entitled Power was also included in the best-seller list and in many social psychologists have theorized that the reason first and foremost that the book had sold so many copies was that the title itself attracted so much attention. Business, and the way we do business in our modern world today, is changing. Iit is not any more of a freak capitalist system market where in the perfectly competitive model of society which is first expressed by the economists of the 1800s exists.
It is not anymore a simple buying and selling of goods. Because of modern technical innovation in the cutthroat world of business, organizations and corporations are now trying to find new and better ways in order to develop leadership skills and honed their managers in order to destroy the competition (Cavanagh, 2005). This has gone so far even as to result in various disagreements and internal conflicts within organizations.
These conflicts may not even be exclusive to within the organization, for because of their reason we are so integrating oursince our personal lives are so meaningfully intertwined withwith our professional lives, even personal relationships are destroyed because of such professional friction or conflict. the interactions within a company. AlsoMoreover, the changing face of business is evident in the market structure that many subcategories of business development and operation have developed and thrived over the years.
Just one such model of a changing business operation is what is known as FMCG companies, or fast-moving consumer goods. These are products that have quick turnover rates and a relatively low cost to operate and distributes, as low as produce (Newcomen Society, 1957). And now if we make a cross-sectional comparison between the profits made by a fast moving consumer goods and other large corporations we one would notice that the profit margins are comparatively small. These goods are generally sold in large numbers and so the summation of these profits is large in scale.
Just to cite a few examples of these fast-moving consumer goods are products which are frequently used and bought by consumers including toiletries, cosmetics, cleaning products, shaving products and detergents. Also included in among such examples are non-consumable products but are also bought regularly by consumers including glassware, bulbs, batteries, and paper products. And Bbecause of the proliferation of many kinds of diseases and epidemics in our society today, some forms of medicine may also be classified under fast moving consumer goods.
Before onewe delves deeper into the true topic of the current our paper, it may be worthwhile tolet us first and foremost explore why these fast-moving consumer goods are sohave proliferated in our market today. Let us ask ourselves the question of if the our basic needs that have been taught in elementary school are only include food, clothing, and shelter, then what has transpired happened in our society that madekes us need so many other goods so much so that we could virtually not live in our modern world without them?
The course of this question should be addressed by yet another research paper, but then again at least for our purpose it is important for us to realize such a question. including this company operation into our discussion, but is also point out that Mmany of todays companies, corporations, and even pure profit organizations have within business goals and propose certain values which must be upheld not only by the leaders of the company and organization in question, but also by the totality of its employees and its representatives.
These values representations are clearly identified in the mission and vision statements of the cCompanies that are most often flagged by the leaders and upper-level management. However, what one says does not necessarily equate to what one does or what one intends to pursue or upholdmeans. It is not unknown to us Tthe various misgivings of companies with respect to values that they show are not unknown to us. Our Mmodern history is filled with instances where leaders say something and do the exact opposite.
Not even segregated to companies and business entities. Many of the misgivings of our leaders could also be found in government structures and government management (Spong, 2007). If even the highest levels of our leadership exercise such violations of the values they preach, then what more could we expect from our business leaders both first and foremost makes it obvious that their goal for the company is profit? 70% of their religion off the world advocateis Christianity as religion.
Meaningeting, perhaps, that almost 70% of the world reads the Bible. We shall be using the Bible as a religious figure of Jesus all throughout this paper in order to identify the various values that should be present within our leaders (Stott, 2006). As you go on with our paper, also, we would be citing references from the Bible as they have been respectively classified. One of the most enduring documents of our time is the Bible.
Although the book is well-known and popular to almost any academic person or even the common layman, for our purposes, let us assume that not all people know about this book in order that they may explain its significance to the paper and the various leadership styles that it would be able to teach. The Bible is a book that refers to collections of canonical text and religious writings that has its origins in Judeo-Christian traditions.
The Bible is not a mere bulk of texts, but in fact a collection of books that process within it various historical traditions and accounts of the religion of Christianity. Now, it is important for us to understand that referring to the Bible does not necessarily point towards the Bible we all know of. In fact, there is a Jewish version of the Bible which is often referred to as the Hebrew Bible, a collection of 39 books which is the foundation of the said religion.
According to believers, it is Gods direct word transcribed through human hands but inspired by divine means. The Christian tradition divides the Bible into two parts, the previous consisting of 46 books of the Old Testament and 27 books of the New Testament. Tthe Bible had been originally written in Greek and many versions exist as of today, but all claiming that it has preserved the original essence in order to hold the argument that it has been inspired by God and in fact are the transcribed words of the divinity.
Now the question eventually faces us in referring to of having the Bible ais our main and central point of reference for this paper is how authoritative it really is. Is it merely a collection of fictional works or indeed something that could be attested to by many of its authorities to be direct words and transcriptions of divinity? And the more important and pressing question is can it still be relied on after almost 2000 years of existence and could the stories and works found inside still be applicable for modern setting? First, the argument of time.
Although it is also true that the Bible could be dated as long as 2000 years old for the King James version more or less the same version that we are reading now if we are Roman Catholics the totality of the Old Testament had been written much more before that. In fact, the Jewish religion, perhaps dating as long as 3000 years ago, claims that most of the text of the Old Testament were one of the most earlier writings second only to Zoroastrianism. The first books of the Bible had been written in Egyptian papyrus, ended its only much later that it had been translated into Greek.
Wwhen it comes to academic text, time is indeed a valuable factor in considering its impacts to modern society. In order to reaffirm its importance, perhaps it would be wise for us to look back at that time and realize that most of the books that were written and created in that eon of human history had indeed profound effects and how our society and our thoughts as a collective society had been affected. Just take Platos book the Republic for example. It is basically one of the oldest texts of political philosophy.
However, even if that holds true, the Republic still stands as one of the most basic examples of democracy and how it is applied. Just a few decades later when Aristotle wrote his first books, his collections of metaphysics and the many other contributions to science had been the building blocks of other studies even to the modern day. In many such areas like literature, physics, chemistry, and the many other disciplines of the modern world, it is through old texts that modern scholars look towards and reaffirm the believe that even the oldest of books hold much grain of truth compared to those which are new.
In fact, on argument by most writers is that most of the books written today are merely copies or modifications of the old books of our society. They have merely been rephrased in order for us to understand better, but the same ideas and essence still remain. If this is not proof enough, one merely needs to look at authoritative leadership books as of the present and TrackBack their reference until one reaches the Bible. The second is the argument of content. Many scholars are in direct conflict with theologists because the latter group claims that the Bible had been written by some divine assistance.
Academic scholars who values science more claim that it is only humans who had conceptualized and read the books of the Bible. if you were to discuss and reflect upon this debate, we would be biting more than we can chew, for this argument has existed as long as the Bible itself has existed. For our academic purpose, let us at the least reliant the fact that either way, it is not problematic for us on the source of the Bible as long as it is able to maintain the same basic truths that we consider essential to our review.
Even if its true that it is not God who had written the Bible but a collection of imaginative man, since we are discussing the lessons of leadership that could be learned from the book, we are at a certain advantage because both theories could prove useful to us. If it is indeed written through divine inspiration acting through human tools, then perhaps we could authoritatively claim that the Bibles leadership styles are indeed universal leadership styles that are not merely human but divine.
On the other hand, having an argument that it is men who had written the contents, this our study could benefit from that idea because even in the early stages of our history, leadership signs had been detected in humanity in their heights of civilization, and these leadership styles and values still exist as of today. Having had qualified or major source, let us now proceed to our paper and identify the various leadership styles that could be found in the Bible. GREAT MEN ARE NOT ALWAYS WISE This concept can be located all throughout the Bible.
Starting from the book of Genesis up to the book of revelations and all those that could be located in between, wisdom over greatness is always highlighted, and in most cases, the Bible and its parables and stories often cite that wisdom is not necessarily a result of greatness, but greatness is the result of much wisdom. Perhaps the story that is most popular in relation to this passage is a story of Solomon the King. In the story of King Solomon, because of his services to the Lord, he had been given a chance to get one which.
He could have gained money or richness, power, greatness, and a host of many other options including immortality and the greatest power in the world. However, the humble king had chosen a something that was not expected to choose: wisdom. And this had not been the end of the story. As we go on deep into the story of Solomon the King in the Bible, many parables and stories had been a site that which exemplified his choice of wisdom over all the other things he could have wished for.
Let us just take for example the story of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, a monarch who had visited his kingdom upon invitation and, as many of us already know, the parable about the room filled with flowers and the queen asking Solomon to choose among the many fake flowers the real thing. Another parable that we may cite for our purpose on the various leadership values and qualities from characters within biblical text are that of when King Solomon suggested dividing a baby into two to determine who the real mother of the child was.
Again, we could find this in the Old Testament of the Bible and the book of Kings. This passage and story is often cited not only in Sunday schools but also in various leadership texts and books. The story goes that the prostitutes came before King Solomon to resolve a quarrel about which of them was a true mother of a baby. When Solomon suggested and dividing them of invading to do with his sword, the true mother is finally revealed because she is willing to give up her child to the lying woman rather than have the child killed.
Song declares that the woman which shows compassion is indeed a true mother and gives a child to her. Also, there are various Ethiopian accounts on the leadership styles of the said King, and one such biblical figure in Jewish heritage goes above all else. It is also within his ruling period that the Temple was finally built. There are also various accounts in the Old Testament especially in the book of Kings were in wisdom is exemplified as a value in which the leader of Israel must possess.
Many such accounts are often held in high esteem by lecturers and preachers. However, for our purpose, it is also important for us to identify with wisdom does not necessarily have to be an outdated quality by most of our modern leaders (Woolfe, 2000). In the example of our case where we try to analyze operations of FMCG companies, the quality of wisdom is essential for the fast distribution of goods not only in its management and its operations, but also in the method for which managers and proprietors may be able to cope up with the high demand of their products.
The allocation of goods and resources is one of the most important characteristics and values cited by management dynamics specialists, for an order for an FMCG company to enjoy continuous flow of profit, the movement of goods and its allocations should be fast enough to cope up with the demand of consumers without sacrificing the well-being and welfare of the workers involved (Cavanagh, 2005). in the Journal of family processes, Grunebau reiterates the importance of this value from the smallest unit of society which is the family, to the interactions of the government, and even to the intricacies of business (Grunebau, 2006).
He cites the functional relationships between wisdom and integrate the values of society. He further states in his article that wisdom must be a requisite for most other values and director of sticks that could be found in leaders and heads of families. Of course, because of the vagueness of the word itself, social psychologists and so sociologists avoid using the word wisdomand substitute them for words like schema and other such ideas which in the end is just a fine way of puttingknowing what to do and how to decide.
We find this in many cases of the Bible where leaders and figures show wisdom by being able to decide for their community the right decisions. VISIONARY LEADERSHIP When discussing the values of Christian leadership, one book that we could not readily ignore is the book of Nehemiah. Many of the most popular Christian values could ready be found in this early book of the Old Testament, only to be reiterated in various events all throughout the Bible.
And since before we delve into the New Testament we shall be focusing on Old Testament teachings for they shall provide the background of many of the leadership styles that we would be encountering later on, perhaps it would be a good idea for our paper to first magnify this book in section as an example of leadership (Woolfe, 2000). The book of Nehemiah highlights visionary leadership through prayer. The need to share a vision and to enable and empower others to become involved in making things happen, as well as the need to maintain leadership through periods of conflict and opposition.
The book highlights the character Nehemiah, a cupbearer of the Persian emperor. The cupbearer, in case one has no idea of the historical significance of such a position, is an important position of trust for a member of the Jewish minority in the Persian court. It is through his leadership that Nehemiah had enabled established credibility amongof the Jewish people through his example. During that time, it had already been more than a century past sinces the Persians had conquered Jerusalem in many of the Jews at that time had been in exile.
Through Nehemiahs example, the Persian court had recognized the importance of having Jews deter percent minority. However, perhaps the most notable event in Nehemiahs career as a cupbearer of the Persian court was when he had shared his vision with the king of Persia. The result of sharing the vision mildly end in a nonviolent way had had a positive effect on the king of Persia, again exemplifying that the cupbearer that he had chosen have been supportive of his campaign and many of the requests of Nehemiah had been granted by the king.
When the vision was shared to other characters, the response had been different, and Nehemiah had facilitated a more assertive stand, still not one that is confrontational and could have created violent results. When Nehemiah arrives at Jerusalem, he creates a strategic analysis of the situation before sharing his vision with the Jews that had been left in Jerusalem. Of course, being one of the countrymen, the response was positive and in favor of him (Woolfe, 2000).
Modern business leaders and managers need to understand that most of the concepts of leadership today, including the model of the transformational leader, had first been rooted in the actions of this biblical character. Many leadership books in the present highlights the importance of transformational leadership, a method of leadership and management where leaders not only give commands to theirhis or her followers in order for them to follow and execute (Bass, 2005).
Rather, a transformational leader recognizes the fact that in order for followers to achieve their full potential and create the highest output levels for the company, that the vision of what the company should do it should ought to be shared. In fact, this could be easily recognized in many of the large corporations today where we find ceilings and walls written with their vision and mission statements, together with the values they recognize in the company (Thousand Oaks, 1993). Of course, we should also identify that not all companies follow such values orientation.
Transformational leaders are rarely found today in large businesses because of their single-minded purpose of profit. And in a world where in it is either you gain the maximum level of profit, or you perish, it would perhaps be safe for us to assume that transformational leaders are nearing extinction. However, this does not necessarily mean that we should stop looking for such leaders and training such leaders. In fact, if we are indeed to do anything about it, we should focus our energies and goals in order to produce such leaders in the future.
Again, if you are to use our FMCG Company as an example, transformational leadership may play an important role not only in the continuous profit maximization of such a company, but also in the values integration and achieving of the vision of the business venture. As we have earlier discussed, because of the quantities that is produced by such fast-moving companies, it is also guaranteed that the amount of labor and human capital involved in the production, distribution, and sales of the products would be extremely high.
In modern management dynamics, we recognize the fact that as more and more people are employed into a business venture, organization, or company, the efficiency of leaders must also be proportional to the number of employees involved. Still another popular leadership method and leadership theory that we may be able to apply in this case is the team leadership theory. It basically classifies leaders and heads as managers, holding their ability to manage specialized human resourcesin the highest regard.
The team leadership model states that the most effective leaders of our time art does not necessarily with the highest level of skill nor specialized abilities. Instead, the team leadership model reiterates the need for leaders which could identify those members in society and organization which are valuable because of their specialized tasks, or any other advantage that they may pose. The job of the team leader is to organize and collate such members of society and group to formulate a team aimed at accomplishing a certain task.
S Wing in the journals of team performance management stated the essential role of team leaders in order to bring out the best in human capital. He points out in his article that often people do not view themselves as capable unless others in a higher position than them point out their capabilities. Also, his article points out the importance of being able to collate people into a unified whole affair according to recent statistics that he had cited in the Journal, the output inner slopes rise exponentially and not just the sum of its parts.
(Wing, 2005) Now that we had identified the virus leadership models, if it had not been obvious or ready to the reader of this paper, we could claim that the model of visionary leadership that is offered by characters and stories in the Bibleare combinations of the two popular leadership models in management dynamics today. In fact, if we observe closely the stories we have identified as well as the many other stories and parables that could be found within the text, elements of transformational leadership as well as the leadership could be found.
So that we may avoid the pitfall of praising the Bible too much, let us point out that perhaps many of the stories found in the Bible are idealized versions of historical accounts. The fact remains, however, if we refers strictly and believe absolutely that counts within the Old Testament books, we discover that our leadership models fit perfectly into combination with the characters that have been highlighted. FMCG companies are usually small in scale with respect to higher-level management but large in numbers for employees (Newcomen Society, 1957).
And because of that high average variable costs involved in continuing the operation of the company, it would not be able to afford more section managers and overseers. And logically, what we substitute for quantity is quality. In a company with only a handful of people in management positions, it would be perhaps essential for such companies in such leaders to be able to hire or trade existing managers towards a transformational leadership style.
Like our example in the Bible were in wisdom and the sharing of vision must be integrated into leaders, but overall effect of a transformational leader had been modern businesses would have the same effect as that of the story in the Bible. THE LEADERSHIP OF JESUS DISCIPLESHIP In Matthew chapter 10 verse two to four, a list of 12 disciples were given. It was also in this chapter that Matthew explains each of their skills and experiences as well as their character traits.
Alter out the New Testament and the small as the gospel of the Roman Catholic Church which we practice today, in the 12 disciples are regularly cited and are often even the central themes of the stories (Singer-Towns, 2005). It is these disciples where the story of Jesus had been built upon, and if it had not been for them, many of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church would be lost. The gospel writers themselves, even, ” of course many already know are also members of the 12 disciples.
It would therefore be an interesting discussion for our purpose of understanding the leadership style of Jesus on why he had the 12 disciples to follow him in the first place (Nouwen, 1993). It is in the book of Matthew that we again understand the purpose of Jesus on why he had chosen the 12 disciples. They have been described as recruits, and the Roman Catholic Church through various studies of scholars over the centuries had identified that Jesus had chosen to 12 in order to become the fishers of men (Nouwen, 1993).
This style of leadership of Jesus could be further understood when we finally realize that many of modern-day companies and businesses rely on apprenticeship stages. This is of course extremely evident in large corporations when there are single identifiable leaders. This leadership style of Jesus further exemplifies and identifies that if we are the ones who are leading, it does not necessarily fall unto our shoulders each and every single task for all eternity (Clinton, 2006).
Delegation is the key word for the concept here, and it is through delegation that we discover that leadership does not necessarily have to be doing everything right all the time by yourself. In our modern-day setting, many of the owners of corporations and the heads of business ventures and organizations think so highly of themselves that they have the opinion that they could be the only ones who could be able to produce results and achieve the goals of the company.
However, what these leaders need to identify and understand is that delegation in the choosing of the disciples could perhaps be a wise option for it not only creates a more efficient setting for a company, but also increases productivity levels of individuals and groups. THE SENDING DISCIPLES Another leadership style of Jesus that could be further exemplified for our purpose of modern-day settings of businesses and companies is when he had sent out the 12 disciples in a stage of his ministry. It is in the book of Luke that we find this.
If we were to use this story in the Gospel specifically for a historical basis, it is the very first time in Lukes Gospel where Jesus finally calls up his disciples to do something. Before that, apostles were merely observers in the crowd. Since , he has been teaching hundreds of crowds and in his actions before that and since the disciples had already been with him during suchalter out the teachings, it would be perhaps safe to issue them that they had he thought they already understood his this message and the methods after being with him for such a long time.
Now, after learning and experiencing his teaching style and the message that he wanted to deliver to the people, Jesus now thought that it was time to send out the disciples to do their own ministries (Nouwen, 1993). This would be perhaps a good events for our example here in our paper, for many of our more than leaders do indeed sent out disciples out into the world to do their ministries. Our first example for it to be closer to home base would be when priests are trained for many long years under many subjects including theology and even far-fetched learning such as mathematics and physics.
It is only after their long years of training and after they have received enough knowledge that they are sent out to preach the gospel. The question therefore that arrives to us at this point is should not be the gospel not be easily understood by even the simplest mind? Why should priests have to be trained in the first place? How can these priests be leaders if they are segregated in long times inside monasteries and convents before being sent out into the world? Now, we must perhaps understand that the gospel is no simple and ordinary prose.
It is not merely a compilation of a short story stories that are that is open to interpretation. It in our world today you require a doctorate in literature before you could be able to teach and universities the values of various novels, what more are the requirements for teaching the Word of God? The reason why priests are locked up for years and even decades inside monasteries are in order to make sure that they fully understand the Word of God before they are sent out into the world.
To make sure that their interpretations of the gospel would not only be subjective insurances but rather thoughts that have been developed and produced by philosophers of the Church throughout the centuries. In Hills article in the Journal of Heythrop by Blackwell publishing, the author highlights the discipleship methods by specifically pointing towards the Gospel of Mark. The Journal article specifically states that it is in the Gospel for Mark where he find a complete explanation, though intrinsically, on why Jesus and chosen the disciples.
(Hill , 2007) AlsoMoreover, the Journal articlethe author highlights the importance of the event of sending out to the disciples not only for mere trainingbut also for an advantage of Jesus himself, highlighting the point that if we believe that Jesus is indeed truly the son of God and could be able to predict future developments of the religion, it had been essential for him to set the example of sending out missionaries.
Of course, such an action could not be integrated into any of the existing leadership models because none of the leadership models of today could not possibly claim premonition as one of its basis. In our modern business, how could we apply such leadership values and characteristics? What can this action of Jesus teach us that we can further integrate into the operations of corporations and organizations? The action of sending out the 12 disciples by Jesus could be related to