| | | | |1 |Competitive games and sport which are characterised by the acceptance of rules and |[pic] | | |responses to opposing challenge | | | |Click on picture to visit NFL website | | |2 |Outdoor pursuits in which participants seek to negotiate some particular terrain: |[pic] | | |the challenge derive from the manner of negotiation adopted and are modified by the | | | |particular terrain selected and the conditions of wind and weather prevailing | | | |.
Click on picture to visit PGA website | | |3 |Aesthetic movement which includes activities in the performance of which, the |[pic] | | |individual is not so much looking beyond themselves and is responding to the | | | |sensuous pleasure of patterned bodily movement, for example dance, figure skating, | | | |forms of rhythmic gymnastics and recreational swimming. | | | |
Click on picture to visit National Ice Skating Association website | | |4 |Conditioning activity, i. e. forms of exercise or movement undertaken less for the |[pic] | | |immediate sense of kinaesthetic pleasure than from the long term effects the | | | |exercise may have in improving or maintaining physical working capacity and | | | |rendering subsequently a feeling of well-being. | | | |Click on picture to visit Fitness Industry Association website | |.
The Council of Europes Sports Charter, adopted in 1992, used a more concise definition: Sport means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competitions at all levels. The main question is how to distinguish between active sport and more general leisure and recreational activities. Some activities such as football, gymnastics and tennis are clearly recognised as active sport. Going to the cinema, going out for a meal are other activities done in leisure time that are clearly non-sports.
It is at the margin that the problem arises. Are darts and snooker sport or leisure activities? It could be argued that they are sports since television coverage occurs in sports programmes and newspaper coverage is in sports sections. They are also competitive; however they involve little or no physical exertion, so they do not fill the criterion for physical activity. Rodgers (1977) suggested that four basic elements should ideally be present in a sport, and the first two should always be present. ¢ Sport should: involve physical activity ¢ Be practised for recreational purposes ¢ Involve an element of competition ¢ Have a framework of institutional organisation.
To these you could add the criterion of general acceptance that an activity is of a sporting nature, e. g. by the media and sports agencies. References Rodgers B (1977) Rationalising Sports Policies; Sport in the Social Context: Technical Supplement, Council of Europe, Strasbourg Adapted from Economics of Sport and Recreation Chris Gratton and Peter Taylor: E and FN Spon Evaluating the Role of Sport and Recreation in Society Mapping of outcomes for the above unit Click to view PowerPoint presentation Revision The questions in the quiz are based on information which can be found on the links provided on the PowerPoint presentation. Check your answers with the information on the links. Click for quiz.