Determination of the %Ethanol Present in Alcoholic Beverages Essay

Published: 2020-04-22 08:25:15
2805 words
11 pages
printer Print
essay essay

Category: Alcoholic beverage

Type of paper: Essay

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Hey! We can write a custom essay for you.

All possible types of assignments. Written by academics

GET MY ESSAY
Abstract Given a 25. 0 mL commercial alcoholic beverage, the group is expected to be able to compute for its alcohol content with the use of their background and recently-taught knowledge of the process of distillation, which is the technique that is to be applied for the experiment . Knowing ethanols, which is the chemical present in all alcoholic drinks, boiling point as 78%, the students are to collect the distilled and separated ethanol into a test tube with a marker indicating that it contains 1. 0 mL of the sample from the distillation set-up.

The collected distillate is then subjected to a flammability test in order to know in which volume the ethanol content is high (in which most of the groups results are in between 11. 0 12. 0 mL). The collected data and results are then computed for the percent ethanol, in which in this group appeared to be as 48%. Introduction Ethanol is a primary alcohol; it is a compound that is a clear liquid, commonly referred to as alcohol, found in alcoholic beverages. Ethanol (CH3CH2OH), also referred to as grain alcohol, is obtained from the fermentation of grains or fruits, a process that has been widely used for thousands of years.

Industrially, ethanol is prepared via the acid-catalyzed hydration of ethylene. All alcoholic drinks contain a certain amount of ethanol, which is the safest form of alcohol that is to be ingested by human. Though regarded as somewhat safe, still, alcohol consumption is to be always observed in order to not have unwanted effects. Alcohol is prepared by fermentation, in which microorganisms assist in chemical breakdown of a substance. In production of alcoholic beverage, addition of yeast to previously prepared mixture is an example of fermentation.

The yeast mixed with sugar turns it into alcohol during the process that last from several days or even years, brewers of such drinks have proven that the longer the fermentation is, the greater the taste of the drink will be. Distillation is the general technique used for removing a solvent, purifying a liquid, or separating the components of a liquid mixture. In a distillation, a liquid (mixture) is heated to the temperature at which it changes to a vapor. The vapor is then cooled, and thus liquefied, in another part of the apparatus (the condenser).

Distillation involves having knowledge of the substances boiling point since it involves heating it in order to separate it. In distillation, the vapor temperature which is in equilibrium with the boiling liquid is the temperature being recorded rather than the distilling flask [1]. Knowing the boiling point of the compounds being subjected to the process of distillation is a critical part since you subject it to heat and allowing it to boil then you are expected to collect the correct vapor, which then undergoes condensation in order to return to its liquid phase, from the mixture being separated apart.

Boiling is not a necessary requirement for distillation, but it certainly accelerates the process. What is boiling? A liquid is boiling when the vapor pressure of the liquid equals that of the atmosphere giving the liquid the maximum rate of escape into the vapor phase. If a liquid has a low boiling point, its intermolecular forces are low and less energy is needed for molecules to escape into the vapor phase at their maximum rate. So if a liquid has a low boiling point, it has a higher vapor pressure at any temperature, but the maximum rate of escape can be achieved at a relatively low temperature.

It is important to realize that like other phase changes, boiling is an equilibrium process. When a liquid is boiling the escaping tendency of the liquid into the gas phase equals that of the gas into the liquid phase. There are two types of distillation set-ups; the simple and the fractional. Figure 1: Simple Distillation Set-up In the simple distillation set-up, the distillate would contain one liquid but would still be mixed with a second component. In order to further separate this mixture, one is expected to redistill it. Figure 2: Fractional Distillation Set-up.

On the other hand, a fractional distillation set-up operates on the principle of repeated distillation steps that happen in the fractionating column part of the set-up. The vapor and condensate are passed through the fractionating column before they reached the distillation head, this column contains a packing such as a metal turnings or glass beads. With a good fractionating column, compounds having boiling points only a few degrees apart may be separated successfully, though the efficiency of a column highly depends on its length and packing. In principle, one could separate any two liquids provided there is a difference in boiling point.

It is important to realize that when heating both types of molecules are vaporizing simultaneously, though hopefully one escapes in greater quantity than the other. This is one of the most common misconceptions about purification through distillation; that the more volatile component just jumps off the surface of the solution, leaving the less volatile component behind. This would be true of water in a solution of sodium, but not true at all of a solution of two reasonably volatile liquids. The total vapor pressure of a binary solution of two volatile components A and B can be described as follows:

Pr XAP°A +XBP°B The above equation is a combination of Raoults law and Daltons law of partial pressures. What it is saying is that the total pressure of the system is the result of the partial pressure of each of the components making up the solution. The partial pressures in turn depend on the amount of each component and the vapor pressure of the individual component. Results and Discussion Test tubeVolume (mL)Temperature °CFlammability 1068positive 0. 572 176 21. 578positive 278 32. 579positive 379 43. 579positive 478 54. 578positive 578 65. 579positive 679 76. 579positive 779 87.

580positive 881 98. 582positive 983 109. 584positive 1086 1110. 586positive 1191 1211. 588positive 1294 1312. 596negative 1397 1413. 598negative 1498 1514. 598negative 1598 1615. 598negative 1698 1716. 598negative 1798 1817. 598negative 1898 1918. 598negative 1998 2019. 598negative 2098 2120. 598negative 2198 2221. 598negative 2294 2322. 5 23 2423. 5 24 The table above shows the amount of the collected sample in milliliters that the group acquired from the distillation process of the given 25. 0 mL of the alcohol beverage. It also conveys the temperature where the 0.5 mL of the sample in each test tube was collected.

To further display the relationship between the temperature and volume of the collected distillate, below is a graph showing these values. ? In order to compute for the % ethanol present on the distillate, one must use the formula: % Ethanol=(volume flammable)/(total volume) x 100 In which, in this data gathered: % Ethanol= (12. 0 mL)/(25. 0 mL) x 100 % Ethanol= 0. 48 mL x 100 % Ethanol=48% Now, to compute for the % loss during the distillation process, one must use the formula: % Loss=(total volume-(volume used+volume loss))/(total volume) x 100.

Which in this case is: % Loss= (25. 0 mL-(22. 0 mL+1. 0 mL))/(25. 0 mL) x 100 % Loss=(2. 0 mL)/(25. 0 mL) x 100 % Loss=0. 08 mL x 100 % Loss=8% Procedure After assembling assigned distillation set-up (for odd groups, it should be simple distillation set-up and for even groups it should be fractional distillation set-up), the professor was approached in order to check whether the set-up is correct. Given a 25. 0 mL of London Gin as the commercial alcoholic beverage, measured by a graduated cylinder, the sample was then transferred into the distilling flask together with 2 pieces of boiling chips.

The flask was subjected to heat by exposing it to a Bunsen burner that was being rotated around the flask continuously. The condensed vapor coming out of the adapter was then collected in separate numbered dry test tubes with recorded temperature every 0. 5 mL of distillate collected. Distillation process is then stopped when the temperature reached 100° C or when the liquid sample was completely distillated. The separately collected liquid samples was then transferred into a watch glass and was exposed to fire, with the use of matchsticks, in order to test flammability, this test was done with using per 1.

0 mL of the collected distillate. The data gathered during the experiment was tabulated and was plotted into a graph with the y-axis being the temperature reading and the x-axis being the distillate volume. References Fessenden, R. , Fessenden, J. , & Feist, P. (2001). Organic Laboratory Techniques (3rd Edition). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Ault, A. (1983). Techniques and Experiments for Organic Chemistry (4th Edition). Newton, Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon, Inc. Klein, D. (2012). Organic Chemistry. Danvers, MA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Laboratory Manual for Organic Chemistry.

Retrieved from: http://www. brynmawr. edu/chemistry/Chem/mnerzsto/Experiment1. htm Determination of the %Ethanol Present in Alcoholic Beverages Justine de Leon*, Henberson de Vera, John Louis Deomampo, and Renzo Enciranes Department of Chemistry, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines Abstract Given a 25. 0 mL commercial alcoholic beverage, the group is expected to be able to compute for its alcohol content with the use of their background and recently-taught knowledge of the process of distillation, which is the technique that is to be applied for the experiment .

Knowing ethanols, which is the chemical present in all alcoholic drinks, boiling point as 78%, the students are to collect the distilled and separated ethanol into a test tube with a marker indicating that it contains 1. 0 mL of the sample from the distillation set-up. The collected distillate is then subjected to a flammability test in order to know in which volume the ethanol content is high (in which most of the groups results are in between 11. 0 12. 0 mL). The collected data and results are then computed for the percent ethanol, in which in this group appeared to be as 48%.

Introduction Ethanol is a primary alcohol; it is a compound that is a clear liquid, commonly referred to as alcohol, found in alcoholic beverages. Ethanol (CH3CH2OH), also referred to as grain alcohol, is obtained from the fermentation of grains or fruits, a process that has been widely used for thousands of years. Industrially, ethanol is prepared via the acid-catalyzed hydration of ethylene. All alcoholic drinks contain a certain amount of ethanol, which is the safest form of alcohol that is to be ingested by human.

Though regarded as somewhat safe, still, alcohol consumption is to be always observed in order to not have unwanted effects. Alcohol is prepared by fermentation, in which microorganisms assist in chemical breakdown of a substance. In production of alcoholic beverage, addition of yeast to previously prepared mixture is an example of fermentation. The yeast mixed with sugar turns it into alcohol during the process that last from several days or even years, brewers of such drinks have proven that the longer the fermentation is, the greater the taste of the drink will be.

Distillation is the general technique used for removing a solvent, purifying a liquid, or separating the components of a liquid mixture. In a distillation, a liquid (mixture) is heated to the temperature at which it changes to a vapor. The vapor is then cooled, and thus liquefied, in another part of the apparatus (the condenser). Distillation involves having knowledge of the substances boiling point since it involves heating it in order to separate it. In distillation, the vapor temperature which is in equilibrium with the boiling liquid is the temperature being recorded rather than the distilling flask [1].

Knowing the boiling point of the compounds being subjected to the process of distillation is a critical part since you subject it to heat and allowing it to boil then you are expected to collect the correct vapor, which then undergoes condensation in order to return to its liquid phase, from the mixture being separated apart. Boiling is not a necessary requirement for distillation, but it certainly accelerates the process. What is boiling? A liquid is boiling when the vapor pressure of the liquid equals that of the atmosphere giving the liquid the maximum rate of escape into the vapor phase.

If a liquid has a low boiling point, its intermolecular forces are low and less energy is needed for molecules to escape into the vapor phase at their maximum rate. So if a liquid has a low boiling point, it has a higher vapor pressure at any temperature, but the maximum rate of escape can be achieved at a relatively low temperature. It is important to realize that like other phase changes, boiling is an equilibrium process. When a liquid is boiling the escaping tendency of the liquid into the gas phase equals that of the gas into the liquid phase.

There are two types of distillation set-ups; the simple and the fractional. Figure 1: Simple Distillation Set-up In the simple distillation set-up, the distillate would contain one liquid but would still be mixed with a second component. In order to further separate this mixture, one is expected to redistill it. Figure 2: Fractional Distillation Set-up On the other hand, a fractional distillation set-up operates on the principle of repeated distillation steps that happen in the fractionating column part of the set-up.

The vapor and condensate are passed through the fractionating column before they reached the distillation head, this column contains a packing such as a metal turnings or glass beads. With a good fractionating column, compounds having boiling points only a few degrees apart may be separated successfully, though the efficiency of a column highly depends on its length and packing. In principle, one could separate any two liquids provided there is a difference in boiling point. It is important to realize that when heating both types of molecules are vaporizing simultaneously, though hopefully one escapes in greater quantity than the other.

This is one of the most common misconceptions about purification through distillation; that the more volatile component just jumps off the surface of the solution, leaving the less volatile component behind. This would be true of water in a solution of sodium, but not true at all of a solution of two reasonably volatile liquids. The total vapor pressure of a binary solution of two volatile components A and B can be described as follows: Pr XAP°A +XBP°B The above equation is a combination of Raoults law and Daltons law of partial pressures.

What it is saying is that the total pressure of the system is the result of the partial pressure of each of the components making up the solution. The partial pressures in turn depend on the amount of each component and the vapor pressure of the individual component. Results and Discussion Test tubeVolume (mL)Temperature °CFlammability 1068positive 0. 572 176 21. 578positive 278 32. 579positive 379 43. 579positive 478 54. 578positive 578 65. 579positive 679 76. 579positive 779 87. 580positive 881 98. 582positive 983 109. 584positive 1086 1110. 586positive 1191 1211. 588positive 1294 1312. 596negative 1397 1413. 598negative

1498 1514. 598negative 1598 1615. 598negative 1698 1716. 598negative 1798 1817. 598negative 1898 1918. 598negative 1998 2019. 598negative 2098 2120. 598negative 2198 2221. 598negative 2294 2322. 5 23 2423. 5 24 The table above shows the amount of the collected sample in milliliters that the group acquired from the distillation process of the given 25. 0 mL of the alcohol beverage. It also conveys the temperature where the 0. 5 mL of the sample in each test tube was collected. To further display the relationship between the temperature and volume of the collected distillate, below is a graph showing these values.

? In order to compute for the % ethanol present on the distillate, one must use the formula: % Ethanol=(volume flammable)/(total volume) x 100 In which, in this data gathered: % Ethanol= (12. 0 mL)/(25. 0 mL) x 100 % Ethanol= 0. 48 mL x 100 % Ethanol=48% Now, to compute for the % loss during the distillation process, one must use the formula: % Loss=(total volume-(volume used+volume loss))/(total volume) x 100 Which in this case is: % Loss= (25. 0 mL-(22. 0 mL+1. 0 mL))/(25. 0 mL) x 100 % Loss=(2. 0 mL)/(25. 0 mL) x 100 % Loss=0. 08 mL x 100 % Loss=8% Procedure

After assembling assigned distillation set-up (for odd groups, it should be simple distillation set-up and for even groups it should be fractional distillation set-up), the professor was approached in order to check whether the set-up is correct. Given a 25. 0 mL of London Gin as the commercial alcoholic beverage, measured by a graduated cylinder, the sample was then transferred into the distilling flask together with 2 pieces of boiling chips. The flask was subjected to heat by exposing it to a Bunsen burner that was being rotated around the flask continuously.

The condensed vapor coming out of the adapter was then collected in separate numbered dry test tubes with recorded temperature every 0. 5 mL of distillate collected. Distillation process is then stopped when the temperature reached 100° C or when the liquid sample was completely distillated. The separately collected liquid samples was then transferred into a watch glass and was exposed to fire, with the use of matchsticks, in order to test flammability, this test was done with using per 1. 0 mL of the collected distillate. The data gathered during the experiment was tabulated and was plotted into a graph with the y-axis being the temperature reading and the x-axis being the distillate volume.

References Fessenden, R. , Fessenden, J. , & Feist, P. (2001). Organic Laboratory Techniques (3rd Edition). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Ault, A. (1983). Techniques and Experiments for Organic Chemistry (4th Edition). Newton, Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon, Inc. Klein, D. (2012). Organic Chemistry. Danvers, MA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Laboratory Manual for Organic Chemistry Retrieved from: http://www. brynmawr. edu/chemistry/Chem/mnerzsto/Experiment1. htm.

Warning! This essay is not original. Get 100% unique essay within 45 seconds!

GET UNIQUE ESSAY

We can write your paper just for 11.99$

i want to copy...

This essay has been submitted by a student and contain not unique content

People also read