Eastern Philosophy Essay

Published: 2020-04-22 08:25:15
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Compare and contrast the Hindu doctrine of Atman-Brahman with the Buddhist notion of non-atman. What was the Buddha reacting against? Is Buddhism to be considered a religion or a philosophy? Hindus strongly believe that in an uncreated, eternal, infinite, transcendent, and all-embracing principle, which, comprising in itself being and non-being, is the sole reality, the ultimate cause and foundation, source, and goal of all existence. This sole magnanimous reality is called brahman. As the All, brahman causes the universe and all beings to emanate from its core and morphs itself into the universe, or assumes its guise.

Brahman is in every matter in this world and is the Self (atman) of all living beings. Brahman plays crucial roles such as the creator, preserver, or transformer, and reabsorber of all matters. Yet it is Being in per se, without attributes and qualities, hence impersonal, it may also be conceived of as a personal high God, usually as Vishnu or Siva. This fundamental belief in and the essentially religious search for ultimate reality which implies The One that is the all have continued almost unaltered for more than 50 centuries and have been the central focus and core of Indias spiritual life (www. rystalinks. com/hindu).

Siddhartha Gautama also called the Buddha, and Vardhamana called Mahavira the great teacher of Jainism . Several heterodox teachers who organized bands of ascetic followers. Every group mandated itself to follow a certain code of conduct. They received generous support from prominent families and merchants. The latter were growing in wealth and influence, and most of them were searching for alternative forms of religious activity that would give them a more significant role than did orthodox Brahmanism or that would be less expensive to support.

Which, in a way, was considered an opposition to doctrines and teachings of Brahmanism. It is suffice to say that Buddhism has similarities with Brahmanism yet at odds with one another (www. crystalinks. com/hindu). Buddhism is considered as a religion for Buddhists yet a philosophy for some. It is a set of doctrines and teachings that is usually describe as a religion. Compared to other religions, other Buddhists allege that Buddhism is not a religion per se, which is a contradiction of their faith to their chosen religion.

Other sects say that it is a mere philosophy that are bounded by the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the one who founded Buddhism. Buddhism is called Buddha Dharma and Dhamma as well, which is defined as the Teachings of the Awakened One in Pali and Sanskrit which are ancient Buddhist texts. This was the reaction of the Buddha during his spiritual quest: experimented with extreme asceticism, which at that time was seen as a powerful spiritual practice¦ such as fasting, holding the breath, and exposure of the body to pain¦ e found, however, that these ascetic practices brought no genuine spiritual benefits and in fact, being based on self-hatred, that they were counterproductive. After renouncing the principles of asceticism and concentrating instead upon meditaion and Anapanasati as well Gautama is believed to have discovered what Buddhists call the Middle Way which is path of moderation that lies in between the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. It leads to the Four Noble Truths and eventually to the Eight Fold Path which will constitute the attainment of Nirvana.

Discuss the Buddist teachings on the nature of the Middle Way as a strictly moral doctrine. What constitutes the path of virtue. What are the Four Noble Truths and how does one obtain Nirvana through the cessation of desire? The main principle of Buddhist doctrine is the called the Middle Way which was discovered by the Buddha prior to his bodhi or enlightenment. The Middle Way or Middle Path has a handful of definitions. Usually it is charaterized by the practice of non-extremism and a path of moderation away from the extremes of self-indulgence and opposing self-mortification.

It is considered in taking a middle ground between specific metaphysical perspectives as well. Which things ultimately either exist or do not exist. An explanation of the state of Nirvana and ultimate enlightenment where all dualities amalgamate and cease to exist as separate entities. The essence of the Middle way as a strictly moral doctrine is bounded by the path of virtue which is called as the Eight Fold Path as well. Buddhist doctrine, stated by the Buddha in his first sermon near Benares, India.

The path is regarded as the way for individuals to deal with the problems named in the Four Noble Truths The path consists of right understanding (faith in the Buddhist view of existence), right thought (the resolve to practice the faith), right speech (avoidance of falsehoods, slander, and abuse), right action (abstention from taking life, stealing, and improper sexual behavior), right livelihood (rejection of occupations not in keeping with Buddhist principles), right effort (development of good mental states), right mindfulness (awareness of body, feelings, and thought), and right concentration (meditation).

It is also called the Middle Path, because it steers a course between sensuality and asceticism. Following the Path leads to escape from suffering and attainment of Nirvana (Britannica. com). The Path of Virtue if imminet will lead to the emergence of the Eight Fold Path after the cessation of the Four Noble Truths, which after it culminates will eventually lead to the attainment of Nirvana The Buddhist doctrine of the Middle way guides this conviction and belief by an apt understanding of The Eight Fold Path as a means of attaining the state of Nirvana.

Furthermore, The doctrines are essential and crucial in order for a being to not only understand the very essence of Nirvana but what culminates after the attainment of such state as well. The Buddhist Doctrine implored by the Buddha in his initial teachings are significant towards the road to Nirvana. The four noble truths constitute a means of attaining nirvana which is not plausible for some. Dukkha or the nature of suffering is actually the noble truth of suffering that implies that birth is suffering per se and other physiological notions are suffering as well.

An amalgamation from what is displeasing is suffering, thus separation from what it pleasing is suffering and not to achieve what one desires is suffering. A sufferings origin or Samudaya is the noble realization of the origin of suffering. This yearning leads to a renewed existence that will be accompanied by delight and lust which leads to the craving of sensual pleasure then craving for existence and eventually, the craving for destruction. Cessation of suffering or Nirodha is the noble truth for the abrupt cessation of suffering.

It is regardless of the cessation of the similar crasving, te giving up, and finally the relinquishing of it, the freedom and not the non-reliance from it. The fourth noble truth is The Way or Magga which leads to the cessation of suffering. It is the noble truth of the way which leads to he cessation of suffering. The Eightfold Path namely: that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration as well. These are the four great truths of Buddhinsm. Dukkha implies that all existence is afflicted with suffering.

Second, Samudaya identifies desire, thirst, or craving as the source of suffering, which intangibly binds beings to samsara or the cycle of existence. Nirodha asserts that cessation of craving will bring suffering to a halt. Finally, The Eightfold Path which culminates the four noble truths implies he omission of suffering and the escape from samsara. These Four Noble Truths are bounded to the idea of Nirvana in which one can attain a state of finitude that will lead to absolute reality of positive and negative efforts that may lead to the attainment of Nirvana.

Discuss the Buddist doctrine of non-atman (non-substantiality). How does it comprise the three Marks of Existence and what does it mean to say that all form is emptiness. Hint:There is Nirvana but no-one attains it. In order to achieve Nirvana, one must endure the three marks of existence namely: Dukkha, Anicca, and Anatta. These three are bounded by the Buddhist notion that after meditation they will conclude all the physical and mundane matters. Dukkha, for its part, is striving for what a person desires while enduring suffering and torment yet after an ordeal you might find happiness in achieving what one desires.

Eventually, boredom which is a form of suffering will divert a person from such boredom by indulging in a pursuit of new forms of pleasure. Boredom is a result of a ramification of our interest in a matter which a person desires which captivated us at first. Anicca is the inconstant and impermanent per se. Each person can undergo by the use of our senses which is dependent on the right conditions for its existence. Everything is constantly changing and is always in sporadic influx.

Matters are constantly coming into being as well as ceasing to be. The crucial point is that a phenomena may arise and cease due to complex states and conditions that do not occur within our whims. Though we have a finite ability to generate a change to our possessions, previous experience tells us that our feeble attempts have no guarantees that the outcome of the efforts will also be according to our liking. Lastly, Annata is the unceasing change of permanent essence which is conceived through the virtue of existence.

A human beings personality is an orthodox appelation applied to the consortium of physical and mental components which each is mandated to a constant influx yet there is not central essence or core which is similar to a bundle theory of mind and soul. Nirvana is the finite state of the Mahayana ideology. It the state in which the attempt to grasp reality is halted in a holistic way, by means of the realization of its impossibility. Evidently, it is and preposterous and absurd to presume that nirvana per se as a state to be achieved.

Nirvana is not the state of coming to terms with reality due to the fact that such state cannot generate either a positive or negative aura. In its negative nature, Nirvana is said to be as no waves and blowing out, implying that achieving such state would mean tranquility of ones existence. Yet these statements offer minimal attributes of nirvana. Nirvana as finite is an anti-thesis to positive attributes and words such as eternal and omnipresent though its positive comprehension is bound by intellect. Buddha, for his part, will never answer question in a postive manner regarding the notions of nirvana.

Considering it is not out of sheer prudence but practicality as well. Coming into terms with finitude eventually concludes nirvana that is an absolute reality. By directing awareness away from finitude and towards the intuitive core of the brain, an individual consciously grips reality. The negative part of the effort are not sufficient enough to realize Nirvana. Nirvana is not present and will not be realized by grasping finitude yet the Buddha suggested that it is possible and effortless to achieve Nirvana by the means of directing awareness and channeling its energy internally through positive efforts.

There is a deliberate mistake in which the belief of the right motivation culminates the achievement of nirvana, in which samsara or finitude is part of nirvana which s infinitude and coming into terms with samsara will embody achieving nirvana in an apt manner. The notion of renouncing Nirvana is a deliberate and evident contradiction because it obviously contradicts it very purpose. Such misguided attribute is a sheer reflection of the Buddhist meditation practice of sitting without being occupied by preconceived notions. Renouncing nirvana with the apparent purpose of eventually realizing nirvana is a deliberate contradiction.

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