Information system(IS) is a system that is capable of processing an information to help an individual or a whole company. Information system is also capable of AI(Artificial Intelligence) which can help people to make better decision without the difficulties. Information system has four phases Input phase During the input phase , data are transformed into a data which can be processed by a computer or a machine. Processing Phase During the processing phase , all the data that is part of the activity will be manipulated. Output Phase
During the output phase, the computer gives the user the processed data. These data are the day-to-day requirement for an activity. Storage Phase The final phase is the storage phase, this phase involves storing of data,information and instructions. Management information system (MIS) provides information that is needed to manage organizations efficiently and effectively. Management information systems are not only computer systems these systems encompass three primary components: technology, people (individuals, groups, or organizations), and data/information for decision making.
Management information systems are distinct from other information systems in that they are designed to be used to analyze and facilitate strategic and operational activities in the organization. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations evaluate, design, implement, manage, and utilize systems to generate information to improve efficiency and effectiveness of decision making, including systems termed decision support systems, expert systems, and executive information systems..
Most business schools (or colleges of business administration within universities) have an MIS department, alongside departments of accounting, finance, management, marketing, and sometimes others, and grant degrees (at undergrad, masters, and PhD levels) in MIS. In a management information system, modern, computerized systems continuously gather relevant data, both from inside and outside an organization. This data is then processed, integrated, and stored in a centralized database (or data warehouse) where it is constantly updated and made available to all who have the authority to access it, in a form that suits their purpose.
Though it is sometimes applied to all types of information systems used in businesses, the term management information systems, or MIS, actually describes specific systems that provide managers with reports and, in some cases, on-line access to the organizations current performance and historical records, Laudon and Laudon noted. MIS primarily serve the functions of planning, controlling, and decision making at the management level. MIS are one of a number of different types of information systems that can serve the needs of different levels in an organization.
For example, information systems might be developed to support upper management in planning the companys strategic direction or to help manufacturing in controlling a plants operations. Some of the other types of information systems include: transaction processing systems, which simply record the routine transactions needed to conduct business, like payroll, shipping, or sales orders; and office automation systems, which are intended to increase the productivity of office workers and include such systems as word processing, electronic mail, and digital filing.
Ideally, the various types of information systems in an organization are interconnected to allow for information sharing. Database An organized collection of data, today typically in digital form. The data are typically organized to model relevant aspects of reality (for example, the availability of rooms in hotels), in a way that supports processes requiring this information (for example, finding a hotel with vacancies). A database can generally be looked at as being a collection of records, each of which contains one or more fields (i. e. , pieces of data) about some entity (i. . , object), such as a person, organization, city, product, work of art, recipe, chemical, or sequence of DNA. For example, the fields for a database that is about people who work for a specific company might include the name, employee identification number, address, telephone number, date employment started, position and salary for each worker. Several basic types of database models have been developed, including flat, hierarchical, network and relational. Such models describe not only the structure of the conforming databases but also the operations that can be performed on them.
Typically, a database has a schema, which is a description of the model, including the types of entities that are in it and the relationships among them. Flat databases are the simplest type. They were long the dominant type, and they can still be useful, particularly for very small scale and simple applications. An example is a single table on paper or in a computer file that contains a list of companies with information about each such as name, address, product category, contact name, etc.
A flat database can also exist in the form of a set of index cards, each containing the information for one of the entities. The development and subsequent rapid advance of electronic computers in the second half of the twentieth century led to the development of database models that are far more efficient for dealing with large volumes of information than flat databases. The most notable is the relational model, which was proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.
Codd, a researcher at IBM, criticized existing data models for their inability to distinguish between the abstract descriptions of data structures and descriptions of the physical access mechanisms. A relational database is a way of organizing data such that it appears to the user to be stored in a series of interrelated tables. Interest in this model was initially confined to academia, perhaps because the theoretical basis is not easy to understand, and thus the first commercial products, Oracle and DB2, did not appear until around 1980.
Subsequently, relational databases became the dominant type for high performance applications because of their efficiency, ease of use, and ability to perform a variety of useful tasks that had not been originally envisioned. Object-oriented databases became a new focus of research during the 1990s, in part because of the great success that the object-oriented concept was having in programming languages (e. g. , C++ and Java).
Such databases have had some success in fields in which it is necessary to accommodate bulky and more complex data than relational systems can easily cope with, such as multimedia and engineering data, and some object-oriented concepts were thus integrated into leading commercial relational database products. Normalization the process of organizing it into tables in such a way that the results of using the database are always unambiguous and as intended.
Normalization may have the effect of duplicating data within the database and often results in the creation of additional tables. (While normalization tends to increase the duplication of data, it does not introduce redundancy, which is unnecessary duplication. ) Normalization is typically a refinement process after the initial exercise of identifying the data objects that should be in the database, identifying their relationships, and defining the tables required and the columns within each table. ata flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the flow of data through an information system, modeling its process aspects. Often they are a preliminary step used to create an overview of the system which can later be elaborated. DFDs can also be used for the visualization of data processing (structured design). ntity-relationship diagram is a data modeling technique that creates a graphical representation of the entities, and the relationships between entities, within an information system