According to that text the most identifying types of ethnicity groups are Nationality, tribes, race and religion. Nationality is almost self-explanatory; this identifier of ethnicity is based on what the commonalty of being from the same county or land. Nationality is the combination of having the same culture, speak the same language, and having the same genealogical background. An example of this ethnic group would be like native India to the Haitians or Japanese people. This leads way to the next group tribes.
A tribe is, sub-national groups, particularly in Africa, that share a collective identity which include language and common lineage (Handelman, 2001). I believe that tribe is not limited to those in Africa but also reaches to the many various tribes in the rain forest to Austria. This group I feel is a sub group within nationality, tribes form the same land loses the connective to Nationality based on the separation of language, culture and linage. Next we have race, basically race is based on physical identifying characteristics such skin completion and so forth.
Race can be a little more harder to identify correctly based on so many factors can cause the appearance of one race on another. Also with race, it can be a common factor with tribe and nationality but the two groups still have separation despite that common trait. Last but not least is religion, unlike the others this group can be a self-choice to join. This group at most times can be based on nationality, tribe or race but can change because ones identifying with a particular religion.
Ethnicity can play a role of hindrance and positive for movement towards democracy. As defined democracy is measured by the transparency and fairness of the essential procedures governing the election and behavior of government officials (Handelman, 2001). Based on the different groups of ethnicity, democracy can be hinders because of ones strong connection to it group. For example, to have a full democracy both men and women should vote, some tribes and religions do not agree with women have voting rights.
Some people are so proud of their nationality and some to their race that they feel that they are the better group and do not feel others should right. On the other end of the spectrum ethnicity can help with transition towards democracy based on it wanting to come together for a greater good. For instance two races or nationalities joining together against a common enemy fight towards a form of democracy. Handelman, H. (2011 ). Dependency, Modernization, and Ethnic Conflict. In The Challenge Of Third World Development (p. 113). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.