Written almost wholly in verse, Shakespeare contrasts Richard with his successor Bolingbroke to emphasize how care of the kingdom of England and good judgement is inextricably linked with being a successful King. From the onset, Shakespeare presents Richard as vain. In Act I of the first scene Richards interruption of the duel suggests his egotism. The duel gives Richard the opportunity to make a dramatic and grand public gesture, asserting himself as King. As the brawl develops Richard calls Mowbray and Bolingbroke to forgive, forget, conclude and be agreed.
Shakespeares use of verbs in the imperative makes this statement a command. It implies Richard has paid little attention to the reason behind the quarrel, and is instead more interested in people concentrating on his lavish words and public display. The repetition of the o sounds and alliteration of the fs also brings a certain finality to the speech, perhaps hinting at Richards self-important and haughty nature which we see resulting in his demise as King.
This narcissistic portrayal of Richard is continued as the duel unfolds. Shakespeare then further emphasizes Richards enjoyment of power and pleasure in set piece displays of authority with his statement Lions make leopards tame. Richard is referring to himself as the lion and again, Shakespeare uses language to reflect Richards flattery-driven personality whilst perhaps indicating that without firm governing, leopards such as Mowbray and Bolingbroke will be able to attack Richards position of King.
Shakespeare emphasises how ineffective kingship is dominated by flattery and vanity by surrounding the doomed Richard with sycophants who ultimately result in his downfall. Men such as Bushy, Bagot and Greene are all characters that give the king bad advice leading him to lose the crown. Indeed, it is the inadequate guidance that Richards flatterers give such as to leave England, which enables Bolingbroke to return and subsequently force Richard to abdicate. Shakespeare conveys Richards foolishness in listening to these men through the comments from the other characters he creates.
Bolingbroke, Gaunt and York all refer throughout the play to Richards self-deception and craving for flattery. In Act II for example, York remarks that flattery sounds, / As praises emphasising that although Richard considers the flattery he receives to be accurate in terms of truth, it is not; and that he is so blinded by sycophancy and self adulation that he cannot realise his weaknesses and inadequacy as King. Bolingbroke also makes the audience aware of Richards reliance on obsequiousness with his references to the caterpillars of the Commonwealth.
We interpret the caterpillars to be men such as Bushey and Greene and the term caterpillar conjures up imagery of greedy, lazy almost parasitic vermin who are both a detriment to Richard and the rest of England. Bolingbroke then swears he shall weed and pluck away these men. This continues the portrayal of Bolingbroke as a hero and develops England as an organic entity, which is a recurrent theme throughout. Finally, when Gaunt states the King is basely led by flatterers he indicates his antipathy of Richards reliance upon flattery.
This speech can be seen to be an implied condemnation of Richards kingship and is arguably a climax in the tensions between Richard and Gaunt. Undeniably Gaunt expresses his despair at Richards predisposition to flattery at other points in the play too. A thousand flatterers sit within thy crown, conveys the extent to which the King surrounds himself with sycophants. The number thousand can be seen to imply a powerful, almost army-like force which, as well as hating, Gaunt also fears.
To say that they sit within thy crown also reflects their proximity to the King as one associates the word sit with a sense of comfortableness and security. With this line Shakespeare suggests the flatterers feel no threat from others surrounding the King such as Gaunt. A certain hopelessness is inherent in Gaunts situation, as he will never be able to make Richard understand the cost of being surrounded by flatterers before its too late and they lead to his failure.
Indeed, it is through characters such as Gaunt that Shakespeare is able to encapsulate the weak character of the King as he shows Richard as being governed by his flatterers as opposed to governing them, which is presented as the true role of a King. Richards choice to distance himself from his family and make an enemy of his cousin Bolingbroke is a critical error. His aloofness and hostility towards other members of his family jeopardizes the succession.
The succession is presented as an essential element of Kingship as without an heir, Richard could plunge the country into bloody Civil War after his death if those around him disagreed about his successor. This, in conjunction with the divine right of kings is presented as a key element to kingship. According to Richard himself Not all the rough rude sea/ can wash the balm off from an anointed King. Whilst this sums up Richards self-image of being invincible due to his position of King, it also emphasizes the contemporary view of Shakespeares time that a King is appointed by God and for this reason Kingship is sacred.
The term anointed also reflects the sanctity of the Divine Right Of Kings and the word balm conjures up imagery of a King being coated in a shield created by divinity, thus emphasizing Richards prestigious role. According to Gaunt, a King is Gods substitute, his deputy anointed in his sight. As before, Shakespeare chooses the term anointed perhaps to symbolise how sacrosanct the role of King is. The length of sentence combined with the rich words such as Gods substitute sums up the attitude of Shakespeares time about the tasks of a king and emphasizes the contemporary belief of providence, which dominates the play.
Indeed, Shakespeare illuminates the importance of maintaining the succession using many themes and motifs in the play as well as in the storyline. Ideas about blood and Englands condition at the time of Richards rule dominate the story. In Act II for example, Northumberland refers to the dead Gaunt as a royal prince¦ of noble blood. As before in Richards speech at the beginning of the play, Shakespeare controls the assonant o sounds to draw the audiences attention to the relationship between being royal and having noble blood.
Richards comment lets purge without blood also suggests his keenness to prevent some sort of conflict between him and Bolingbroke. This could be interpreted as showing his pacifistic side as demonstrated in the scene of the duel or that he is worried about his own blood, as his death will endanger the succession. It is through this type of language that Shakespeare emphasises the responsibility of a King to ensure the succession and the countrys well being. In addition to succession, Richard II reflects the importance of looking after your realm whilst King.
Shakespeare presents England as being in a poor state whilst Richard reigns, with the Bishop of Carlisle foreseeing disorder, horror, fear and mutiny- all words which describe disaster. However it seems due to Richards preoccupation with vanity, he has ignored the importance of good and effective governance. Richard himself realises this towards the end of the play and water is another pattern of language Shakespeare draws on to illustrate this. In Act III scene 3 we see Richard consciously relinquish the crown.
The flamboyancy of his language continues as before in the play as he abdicates, Mine eyes are full of tears, but his comment that the salt water blinds them not so much/But they can see a sort of traitors here suggests a realisation that his downfall can be attributed to those around him as much as himself and can be interpreted as showing a change in Richards character as he is faced with a kingdom in turmoil. By describing his tears as containing salt, Shakespeare leaves the actual interpretation of the word ambivalent.
One might associate the salt with bitterness either reflecting his enemies resentment towards him, which led to his downfall with men such as Bolingbroke or his own bitterness. Yet the salt also can be seen to suggest corrosion and the deterioration Richards incompetence caused to England, something he has just begun to realise. Shakespeare then develops the water motif into what can be seen as, a metaphor of Richard. He talks of being a mockery king of snow who has before the sun of Bolingbroke¦ melted away in water-drops.
This self-description as a King of Snow perhaps hints at Richards previous self-alienation from family and friends whilst evoking images of Richard as being a cold, unfeeling character. On the other hand, the fact Richard refers to himself as only a King of Snow possibly can be seen to emphasise, consciously or not, that Richard never had genuine control of England at all and that his power never truly existed in any other form stronger than the fragile substance of snow and this is what made his renunciation inescapable.
The subsequent reference to Bolingbroke melting this Snow King into water-drops can then be interpreted as a direct reference to Bolingbrooks seizure of Richards crown which literally, like heat from the sun does to snow, dissolved his power. This self-conscious speech from Richard gives us a sense of his despair at losing the kingship but also his relief. Shakespeares linking of Bolingbroke to the sun can also be seen as Richard considering his cousin to in some ways, be a saviour who has removed him of the responsibility of Kingship, which we have seen him to grapple with unsuccessfully.
As we see a change in Richards personality, other motifs in the play also alter. The significance of blood from bloodlines to the spilling of blood and damage done to England changes for example changes; Thy fierce hand hath with the Kings blood stained the Kings own land powerfully relates to us how Richard has exploited his role as King and damaged England rather than nurturing it which is the true task of a King. To describe the hand as staining the land with blood creates a very powerful image of Richard damaging his Kingdom.
By referring to his hands as the tools that created such destruction, Shakespeare strengthens the amount of responsibility the audience feels Richard has for the strife the country finds itself in. Also to a modern audience at least, the idiom to have blood on ones hands adds to the impact of Richards words. Bolingbrokes allegory of Richards flatterers as caterpillars is expanded later on in the play as Shakespeare presents the country metaphorically as a garden.
The gardeners speak with pitiful regret of the countrys condition and emphasize Richards folly in not looking after his Kingdom. He had not trimmed and dressed his land as we this garden-here the Gardener presents England as out of control and poorly tended to, emphasising how determination and fortitude which are both strengths associated with a gardener are an important layer to Kingship. The gardeners references to noisome weeds also convey the parasitic nature of Richards flatterers and that as Bolingbroke vows to do, they should be plucked and rooted away.
The gardener then goes on to describe these weeds as without profit suck/ the soils fertility from wholesome flowers. The imagery of Richards sycophants preventing flowers of England from flourishing has several connotations; firstly that it is Richard who has inhibited Englands emotional well-being. Secondly it can be seen as a symbolic reference to the sparring Houses of Lancaster and York who fought for the Crown after Richards abdication. However, the Garden scene also gives a sense of sympathy for Richard.
He states that although he suffered this disordered spring/Hath now himself met with the fall of leaf. This perhaps suggests that as a man Richard does deserve some pity when we consider he had no choice in becoming King and that it is only his role as King that has made him inept and destructive. By the end of Richard II the audience has come to realise the intricacies of Kingship. The tone at the end of the play, when Bolingbrook sentences Richard to death is one of grief. Bolingbroke has assumed the cares of Kingship of which had led to Richards self-destruction.
However, during the play we only get a glimpse of Bolingbroke as King and as an audience realise that he has not had time to make mistakes such as those made by Richard. We can instead only see more of Bolingbrokes character in the rest of the series of historical plays, such as Henry IV. It is in Richard II however, that Shakespeares rich language articulates the many different concepts of Kingship and how Richard failed them. We see how the King is divinely appointed to rule, but that his kingship is an obligation to his country, not an opportunity for egotism; and the Crown can be forfeited if the King fails to rule well.
On the other hand, Richard was born to be King; it is a role for which in the play we see him to be ill suited, but is something in which he has no choice. Through his character we realise the many restrictions of Kingship, its burdens and possible consequences. Ultimately Richard cannot escape the trappings of Kingship unless he forfeits his own life. We then see that the only way to escape the afflictions of kingship is death and Richard conforms to this completely, giving up his life in order to give up his Kingship.