Hematology Report Essay

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The term comes from a Greek word glukus which means sweet. It is an organic compound, a simple sugar (monosaccharide) with a chemical formula C6H12O6, which occurs widely in most tissues of plants and animals. A major source of energy in the body, glucose is the principal circulating sugar. It is also knows as D-glucose, D-glucopyranose, grape sugar, corn sugar, dextrose, and cerelose. Glucose, whether in free or combined form, is the most common of the sugars and the most abundant organic compound in nature. Grapes, figs, and other sweet fruits and honey had been found to have considerably high concentration content.

It is also found, although in lesser concentrations, in animal body fluids such as in the blood and lymph. Urine of diabetic patients usually contains 3-5 %. Absorbed into the bloodstream through the small intestine, it is carried through the portal vein to the liver wherein it is stored as glycogen. The rest reenters to the circulatory system. Glycogen is also stored in the muscle tissue (See Glucose) ¢ Catalyst for: a major contributor in metabolism. ¢ Disorders/Diseases: 1. High Levels: diabetes mellitus ? It is characterized by high levels of blood sugar (glucose), caused from defects in insulin secretion or action, or even both.

In normal conditions, blood glucose levels are highly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps lower the glucose level in the blood. In diabetic patients, the absence or insufficient production of insulin causes hyperglycemia. Although diabetes can be controlled, it is a chronic medical condition, which lasts a lifetime (See What is diabetes? ) 2. Low Levels: hypoglycemia ? This disorder occurs when glucose levels falls too low resulting in the malfunction of cells. Symptoms develop such as cool skin, nervousness, headache, confusion, convulsion or even coma.

Control of its level and metabolism is greatly important. 2. ) Urea Nitrogen (BUN) ¢ Definition: Urea is formed in the liver. It is a nitrogen-containing substance, which is normally cleared into the urine from the blood by the kidney. This was the first organic chemical compound that was synthesized. Friedrich Wohler, a German chemist, who accidentally made urea while in the process of attempting to make ammonium cyanate from silver cyanide and ammonium chloride (See Definition of Urea). It is a small organic molecule composed of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen and is formed from ammonia in the kidney and liver (See What is Urea).

¢ BUN: stands for Blood Urea Nitrogen This is a test that is used to measure the levels of urea in the blood. When diseases occur in the kidney, which comprises its function will frequently lead to increased level in the blood. The BUN level in the blood can also rise among patients who are dehydrated. Urea nitrogen is a waste product of protein metabolism in the blood. This is a test that measures how much urea nitrogen remains in the blood that can be used as a test of renal function. Nevertheless, there are many factors aside from renal disease that can cause BUN alterations, including protein breakdown, hydration status and liver failure.

Reference values of BUN: Adult: 7-20 mg/100 ml (men may have slightly higher values than women) Newborn: values slightly lower than adult ranges Elderly: value slightly increase due to lack of renal concentration Pregnancy: values decrease about 25% *Values differ slightly from laboratory to laboratory for all tests ¢ Catalyst for: the breakdown of protein during tissue metabolism ¢ Disorders/Diseases: Diseases or malfunction concerning the kidney often lead to increased blood levels of urea. 1. High Levels: azotemia ? Possible causes: o Dehydration

o Impaired renal function o Stress o Shock o Congestive heart failure as a result of poor renal perfusion o Excessive protein intake o Hemorrhage into the gastrointestinal tract 2. Low Levels: A low BUN may have little significance but can cause liver problems. A decreased BUN may be caused by over hydration. A person with syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic secretion (SIADH), an anti-diuretic hormone responsible for stimulating the kidney to conserve water causes high level of water retention in the bloodstream rather than excreted into the urine.

SIADH can raise the BUN level, while important substances decrease because of the significant increase of fluid in the bloodstream. A decrease BUN level may be seen in: malnutrition, liver failure, over hydration, impaired nutrient absorption, anabolic steroid use (See Blood Urea Nitrogen BUN). Urea itself is non-toxic. 3). Creatinine ¢ Definition: A creatine anhydride with chemical formula of C4H7N3O, is formed by the metabolism of creatine. Creatine is found in muscle tissue and blood; it is excreted as a metabolic waste in the urine (See Creatinine). A small amount is actively secreted and mainly filtered by the kidney.

There is tubular reabsorption of creatinine but compensated by almost the same degree of tubular secretion. Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule, generated from muscle metabolism. About 2% of the bodys creatine is converted to creatinine every day. It is transported through the bloodstream to the kidneys. It is produced at a steady rate. Diet or normal physical activities have little effect on creatinine level. A malfunction of the kidney can decrease its level in the urine while raising its level in the blood (See Creatinine and Creatinine Clearance).

¢ Catalyst for: despite of being a waste, creatinine is vital for diagnostic function It is a reliable indicator of kidney function. ¢ Disorder/Diseases: 1. High Levels: This indicates a possible malfunction or failure of the kidneys. As the kidneys become impaired, creatinine level will rise. A high level suggests the following conditions of the kidney: -damage or swelling of the blood vessels in the kidneys known as glomerulonephritis. Prostate disease, kidney stone or urinary tract obstruction Reduced blood flow to the kidney 2. Low Levels:

It is a rare occurrence that low level of creatinine would appear, and are not usually a cause for concern. Low levels of creatinine can be seen with conditions that results in decreased muscle mass (See Creatinine: The Test). Low creatinine is seen in some severe liver diseases as it is also seen in debilitation (See Low Protein Diet Information for People with Kidney Diseases) Normal level for: Adult males: approximately 0. 6 to 1. 2 milligrams (mg) per deciliter (dl) Adult females: 0. 5 to 1. 1 milligrams per deciliter Elderly: may have less creatinine in their blood than the norm

Infants: 0. 2 or more depending on their muscle development Person w/ one kidney: 1. 8 or 1. 9 Creatinine levels that reach 2. 0 or more in babies and 10. 0 or more in adults may need to use a dialysis machine in order to remove wastes from the blood (See Definition of Creatinine). References: 1. Glucose. http://www. answers. com/topic/glucose 2. What is diabetes? . http://www. medicinenet. com/diabetes_mellitus/article. htm 3. Definition of Urea. http://www. medterms. com/script/main/art. asp? articlekey=5905 4. What is Urea. http://cahpwww. vet. upenn. edu/mun/mun_info.

html 5. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN). http://www. rnceus. com/renal/renalbun. html 6. Creatinine. American Heritage dictionaries. http://www. answers. com/topic/creatinine 7. Creatinine and Creatinine Clearance. http://www. webmd. com/hw/lab_tests/hw4322. asp 8. Creatinine: The Test. http://www. labtestsonline. org/understanding/analytes/creatinine/test. html 9. Low Protein Diet Information for People with Kidney Diseases. http://www. geocities. com/HotSprings/Spa/3265/lowp. html 10. See Definition of Creatinine. http://www. medterms. com/script/main/art. asp? articlekey=12550 4.

) BUN/Creatinin ratio: ¢ Definition: BUN-to-creatinine ratio= 10:1-201 (over 12 months of age) =Up to 30:1 (infants less than 12 months of age) (See Blood Urea Nitrogen) http://www. bchealthguide. org/kbase/topic/medtest/aa36271/results. htm ¢ Disorder/Diseases: High Level: High ratios occur with acute kidney failure, which could be caused by conditions such as shock or severe dehydration Low Level: Can be associated with a diet low in protein, and severe muscle injury called rhabdomyolysis, pregnancy, cirrhosis, inadequate antidiuretic hormone secretion. (See BUN/Creatinine ratio)

http://www. thedoctorslounge. net/nephrology/forums/backup/topic-6481. html 5. ) Sodium: ¢ Definition: Sodium is deposited largely in the blood and in the fluid in the space surrounding the cells in our body. It is important in maintaining a normal fluid balance by all cells. ¢ Catalyst for: plays a key role in normal nerve and muscle function. ¢ Disorder/Disease: Healthy kidneys must have a consistent amount of sodium in the body. Excess amount is excreted in the urine. When the amount of sodium intake and loss are not in balance, the amount of water in the blood is affected.

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