Hugo et al. (1642) Essay

Published: 2020-04-22 08:25:15
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The article authored by Hugo et al. (1642) describes the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on a specific human tissue. Bisphenol A is a structural monomer that is commonly present in plastic containers such as water bottles, food containers and baby bottles. This compound has recently caused a lot of attention from chemists, toxicologists and geneticists because it has been observed that these plastic containers gradually degrade through frequent washing and thus bisphenol A is released to the contents of these containers.

The migration of BPA involves the direct transfer from the plastic containers to either the food or the water that is contained in these reusable containers. The last few years have been inundated with toxicology reports of BPA on different tissues of the human body, as well as that in other animal models such as mice. Greater concern has been associated with monitoring BPA in different types of containers because even the developing fetus has already been reported to carry BPA levels of approximately 0. 3 to 5 nanograms per milliliter.

In addition, BPA has also been detected in the plasma, as well as in the urine samples of human subjects who frequently use plastic containers. Another alarming report has described that BPA has also been detected in human breast milk. The occurrence of BPA is different tissues of the human body has thus prompted researchers to determine the exact mechanism that is involved in the bioaccumulation of the polycarbonate molecule in specific tissues, in order to better understand how this compound may be controlled and possibly, reversed in effect.

The paper describes that BPA largely accumulates in the fatty tissues of the human body and this is mainly due to the chemical nature of this environmental pollutant. BPA has a great affinity to fatty tissues because it is composed of lipophilic structures and thus there is an ease in the integration of the molecule into tissues that are composed of similar chemical structures. Once BPA is present in fatty tissues, it is capable to modify metabolic reactions in the body.

It should be understood that fatty tissues serve as repositories for energy and once the glycogen sources are depleted for energy, the fats are then degraded to generate additional energy that the human body could use. However, the presence of BPA in the fatty tissues could disrupt the degradation of fatty tissues for energy production and thus the individual may feel less energetic than normal. There is currently no straightforward remediation effort that could be associated with BPA because there is not enough information that has been gathered with respect to its mechanism of action on the body.

In addition, there is still a need to further investigate the effects of different doses of BPA in different tissues, as well as on the entire body. Unlike other simpler compounds, it is difficult and unreliable to extrapolate the effects of different dosages of BPA based on what has been published. Current information regarding the effect of BPA includes its association with estrogen receptors which are generally present on breast tissues. It has also been observed that the binding of BPA to the estrogen receptor is weaker than that between estradiol, the common female reproductive hormone, and the estrogen receptor.

However, this report on the binding of BPA to estrogen receptor may thus inhibit the normal pathway of breast growth and development and may probably play a role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. I find that the report of Hugo et al. (1643) regarding the binding of BPA to fatty tissues is agreeable and credible and thus it is important that environmental actions be put in place as early as possible in order to prevent any serious effects on the human body.

In another parallel environmental genetic report, the effect of BPA on the growth and development of the female germ cells in mice was described (Susiarjo 63). The alarming details of the report showed that in the mouse ovary, the formation of follicle was disrupted by the presence of BPA, resulting in aberrations in the specific cell division process of meiosis in the oocyte. It should be understood that normal meiotic division is important for maintenance of the correct number of chromosomes in every egg cell.

Any aberrations in this process may result in aneuploidy or incorrect chromosome numbers. One prime example of aneuploidy in the human setting is trisomy 21 or Down syndrome, which is characterized by the presence of an extra chromosome 21 in the cells of the individual. This extra chromosome results in mental retardation, as well as stunted growth and a particular facial feature. The environmental effect of bisphenol A is thus alarming and unfortunately, not so many people are aware of this pollutant.

It is sad to know that BPA is present in almost every common container that is being used for everyday activities. The modernization of daily living has thus tolled on the human population and thus it is important that scientists and researchers be vigilant in determining that actual effects of common and new pollutants that may be present in the environment. To date, there is an increasing number of brands of bottled water in the market and the consumption of bottled water appears to be very simple for people who are too busy to run to the water fountain for a drink of water.

However, we should understand that these containers are not safe and it will take time for society to realize that the ease in daily activities may have repercussions in human health and in the environment. The two research reports described in this essay are thus credible descriptions of the effects of BPA and it would be helpful if the scientific descriptions were translated into simple laymans terms in order for the society at large to understand the effects of BPA on the human body. I assume that there will be additional reports in the near future with regards to new discoveries on the effects of BPA on other tissues.The effective dose of BPA that is considered mutagenic or carcinogenic may also be reported in the near future.

Works Cited

Hugo, E. R. , Brandebourg, T. D. , Woo, J. G. , Loftus, J. , Alexander, J. W. and Ben-Jonathan, N. Bisphenol A at Environmentally Relevant Doses Inhibits Adiponectin Release from Human Adipose Tissue Explants and Adipocytes. Environmental Health Perspectives 116 (2008): 16421647. Susiarjo, M. , Hassold, T. J. , Freeman, E. and Hunt, P. A. Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse. PLoS Genetics 3 (2007): 63-70.

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