For Burkert, this mirrors clarity is the product of ancient Greeces serendipitous union of antiquity and sophistication (xxiii). While mimetic theory has dwelt on the significances of Greek literary and religious traditions, the cultures sophisticationespecially in matters critical and philosophical have received relatively scant notice. In light of the historical priority of the aesthetic over the theoretical, such inattention is understandable.
This essay, however, will demonstrate how the writings of three of the classical ages most influential commentators on literary theoryAristotle, Horace, and Longinusmanifest a debate on the proper place of the sacred in the aesthetic scene of representation. The debate begins with Aristotles establishment, via critical fiat, of the aesthetic scenes formal and ethical self-sufficiency.
Rather than following up the possibilities for artistic and anthropological discovery enabled by this bold gesture, however, Horace and Longinus display a curious reluctance to evacuate sacrality from aesthetic representation, as if they sensed that to do so was, at the very least, to run the risk of emptying the center of its attention-fixing capabilities. For Aristotles successors, in other words, the processes of aesthetic demystification came into inevitable conflict with the originary power the aesthetic scene retained as it emerged from ritual.
Their writings can thus be seen as struggles to reconcile originary or ritual immediacy with the emotionally leveling effects that representation acquired as it became increasingly institutionalized. An examination of these early attempts to codify aesthetic value thus illustrates thatdespite postmodern claims to the contrarythe problematic status of mimesis is never fully eradicated by artistic institutionalization. I. Aristotle Tradition holds that Aristotles Poetics, the Wests single most influential work of literary criticism, originated in an esoteric dispute.
To the end of his argument for the banishment of poets from the good State in book X ofThe Republic, Plato appended a challenge to all those who love poetry but who are not poets to plead for her in prose, that she is no mere source of pleasure but a benefit to society and to human life (340). AristotlesPoetics answered this call, countering Platos claim that poetry is far removed from reality and wisdom (334-5) because the poet lacks both knowledge and correct belief of the 2 subjects he portrays (332) by asserting that poetry and politics, or poetry and any other art, do not have the same standard of correctness.
. . (67). Further, as a reply to Platos concern that seeing some hero in Homer or on the tragic stage moaning over his sorrows in a long tirade (337) will encourage us to indulge in similar theatrics when we are suffering ourselves (338) so that we behave like a child who goes on shrieking after a fall and hugging the wounded part (336), Aristotle advances his famous theory of catharsis: tragedy through a course of pity and fear complete[s] the purification of tragic acts which have those characteristics (25).
The impatience with aesthetic representation that prompted Plato to question the place of poets and poetry in the ideal state is conventionally attributed to the problematic status of art within his theory of forms; teacher and pupil differ, it is said, in the degree to which they grant philosophical legitimacy to poetry. Whereas Plato sees a long-standing quarrel between poetry and philosophy (339), Aristotle advances the opinion that poetry is a more philosophical and serious business than history (33).
From the standpoint of the mimetic theory, however, the real issue at stake is not philosophy, but the threats posed by any kind of imitation to the social fabric. As Girard writes, Platos hostility toward mimesis is an essential aspect of his work and it should not be seen as confined, as it always is, to his criticism of art. If Plato mistrusts art it is because art is a form of mimesis, and not the reverse. He shares with primitive peoples a terror of mimesis that has yet to be sufficiently explained (15).
Though he concedes his teachers intuition that that imitation is arts core element, Aristotle nevertheless asserts that the aesthetic scenes self-containment amounts to a guarantee that representational mimesis cannot threaten the polis with the kinds of social and ethical disintegration Plato feared. Eric Gans puts it this way: For Aristotle, mimesis has none of the conflictive connotations it had retained for ritually focused thought up to Plato.
It is a wholly advantageous doubling, participating in all the benefits of originary representation with no possibility of provoking the resentful rivalry that accompanies mimesis in the real world; on the contrary, mimesis is a purgative cure for resentment, a catharsis (Originary Thinking 135). For Girard, then, Platos intolerance for poets and poetry stems from his unwillingness or inability to separate appropriation from imitation.
Furthermore, this misapprehension has passed unnoticed because all of his successors, beginning with Aristotle, have followed his lead (Things Hidden 8). Gans, on the other hand, recognizes the extent to which Platonic and Aristotelian concepts of mimesis differ. For Plato, literatures ties to the originary event remain strong enough to ignite new crises; Aristotle, on the other hand, holds that poetrys institutionalization has effectively severed its threatening connections with primeval, violent forms of mimesis.
That artistic representations are indeed far removed from reality is for Aristotle their saving grace; poetrys ability to create bracketed worlds effectively establishes safe havens where primevally infectious behaviors may be indulged with relatively little fear of instigating communal crisis.
The difference between Platonic and Aristotelian mimesis therefore becomes more a matter of degree than of kind. Thus both Girards refusal to distinguish between the two and Ganss view of Aristotelian mimesis as participating in all the benefits of originary representation with no possibility of provoking. . . resentful rivalry oversimplify the contribution of Poetics to the understanding of the essential operations of imitation and art. Lying at the core of Aristotles text is an ineradicable tension between the tangible emotional power of originary or ritual immediacy and the comparatively vitiated affects of secular, aesthetic representation. This tension places Aristotle and subsequent critics on the horns of a dilemma both ethical and practical: how much violence can the scene of representation contain?
How thoroughly mustor canpoetry cleanse itself of the stain of its violent origins? Aristotles inquiry into the precise nature of the relationship between the ritual and aesthetic scenes of representation is the bold first step that enabled his subsequent discoveries of arts possibilities; only by calling into question Platos one-to-one identification of the two scenes could Aristotle advance, as Gerald Else has written, a viable philosophy of literature (Poetics 4).
Curiously, however, this achievement begins not by denying literatures ritual origins, but by relocating ritual from the human to the animal realm: As to the origin of poetic art as a whole, it stands to reason that two operative causes brought it into being, both of them rooted in human nature. Namely (1) the habit of imitating is congenital to human beings from childhood (actually man differs from the other animals in that he is the most imitative and learns his first lessons through imitation), and so is (2) the pleasure that all men take in works of imitation (20).
His anthropological starting point enables Aristotle to disconnect mimesis and ritual by advancing a hypothetical, pre-ritual scene of representation. If mimesis is a behavior, part of our animal inheritance (man differs from the other animals in that he is the most imitative), then the Platonic closed loop of imitation and ritual leading either to ethical action or to mimetic crisis must be re-examined in light of the existence of animal (non-ritualistic because congenital) forms of mimesis.
In short, resituating mimesis within an ethological context enables Aristotle to rid representation of its narrowly ethnological (that is to say, Platonic) threats and terrors. The distinguishing characteristic of the neoclassical art, according to Gans, is its aesthetic self-consciousness (Originary Thinking 151-156). While it is impossible to decide whether Aristotles faith in artistic self-sufficiency enabled or merely hastened the neoclassical eras discovery of aesthetic self-consciousness, it seems more than just a coincidence that this development so closely followed the Renaissances rediscovery of the Poetics.
But while separating the aesthetic and ritual scenes represents an important step in the ongoing process of understanding the fundamental categories of humanity, de-emphasizing literatures ritual legacies comes with an affective price, and Aristotle knows it. So long as Aristotle strivesas he clearly does in Poeticsto present both a general theory of 4 representation and universal criteria for poetic excellence, he cannot ignore the potent emotional force, or pathos, which ritual, drawing on the crisis/resolution pattern of the originary event, possesses in abundance.
The famous rules of tragic construction are, in fact, attempts to specify the means by which a relatively de-ritualized aesthetics may nevertheless retain rituals power (to employ a telling and still-popular metaphor) to strike its audience. Take the central recommendation about plot: the plot must be so structured, even without benefit of any visual effect, that the one who is hearing the events unroll shudders with fear and feels pity at what happens.. .
This represents, in effect, the interpolation of a ritual or even pre-ritual phenomenology into the theory of tragedy. By definition, ritual is participatory, even if participation amounts to little more than directing ones attention to the scene on which an event unfolds; the complete evacuation from the aesthetic scene of ritual elements would thwart the arousal of what Aristotle calls the indispensable tragic emotions of pity and terror.
Other Aristotelian recommendations for representational success can be seen as attempts to balance the powerand dangerof originary representation against aesthetic distance. We will begin with the most famousand hotly debatedcriterion: what nearly two thousand years of criticism have termed the unity of action. From Ludovico Castelvetro in the 16th century, through Pierre Corneille in the 17th, right up to the present centurys Chicago critics, perhaps no aspect of Poetics has generated as much comment and controversy as this.
The so-called unity of action informs practically all of Poetics, since tragedy is defined as an imitation not of men but of a life, an action (27) and the structure of events, the plot, is the goal of tragedy, and the goal is the greatest thing of all (27). Subsequent critics derived the unity of action primarily from section 7: Tragedy is an imitation of an action which is complete and has some magnitude (for there is also such a thing as whole that has no magnitude). Whole is that which has beginning, middle, and end (29-30).
Elaborating on the meaning of magnitude, Aristotle writes that the beautiful, whether a living creature of anything that is composed of parts, should not only have these in a fixed order to one another but also possess a definite size which does not depend on chancefor beauty depends on size and order; hence neither can a very tiny creature turn out to be beautiful (since our perception of it grows blurred as it approaches the period of imperceptibility) nor an excessively huge one (for then it cannot all be perceived at once and so its unity and wholeness are lost), if for example there were a creature a thousand miles longso, just as in the case of living creatures they must have some size, but one that can be taken in in a single view, so with plots: they should have length, but such that they are easy to remember (30-31).
In short, a tragedys length should be such that it must be possible for the beginning and the end to be seen together in one view (63). 5 Like almost all of Aristotles recommendations in the Poetics, the unity of action is grounded in what a hypothetical viewer is likely to see and, more important, to believe. Tragedys formal coherence, in other words, is itself tested and therefore relies for its ability reliably to produce its defining effects upon its phenomenological consistency with a hypothetically pre-aesthetic concept of human nature. Despite his contention that poetry and politics may employ different standards of correctness, both are ultimately subject to the fundamental structure of center and periphery.
In fact, it is the unity of action by which aesthetic representation accesses rituals spellbinding and emotionally charged effects. As Gans writes, Discourse, as it emerged from ritual, was temporalized, as was ritual; its own duration followed the irreversible progress of the rite, which itself followed that of the original event. . . . Discourse operates within the temporal limits of the original crisis/resolution, which, whether it last a few hours or a few days, is of necessity extremely short in relation to the normal life span of its participants. . . . The elaboration of ritual is less a prolongation of the critical moment than the addition to it of other episodes.
Significance is thus originally a short-term phenomenon, which we may assume to follow more or less the time scheme of a drama, where the speeches of the characters occupy a real time of interaction (Origin of Language 243, 288). Aristotle anticipates Gans in grounding the significance (or, to use his word, beauty) of literary discourse in a ritually derived temporality. As Aristotle writes in Section 7: Beginning is that which does not necessarily follow on something else, but after it something else naturally is or happens; end, the other way round, is that which naturally follows on something else, either necessarily or for the most part, but nothing else after it; and middle that which naturally follows on something else and something else on it (30).
To make the connections between aesthetic contemplation and ritual participation too explicit, however, is to risk falling into what Aristotle might have called the Platonic fallacy. Hence his recommendations with respect to the construction of plots tend to de-emphasize the perceptual elements most closely associated with originary representation. The three elements of plot, according to Aristotle, are peripety, recognition, and pathos, which he defines as a destructive or painful act, such as deaths on stage, paroxysms of pain, woundings, and all that sort of thing (37). The emotions aroused by pathos play a paradoxical role in Poetics: while he identifies pity and terror as the tragic emotions, the most effective formal means by which they are aroused are, in Aristotles view, the least connected with poetic art.
Though the visual adornment of dramatic persons can have a strong emotional effect, this is the least artistic element among the six constituents of tragedy (29); and while it is possible for the fearful or pathetic effect to come from the actors appearance, the mark and characteristic of a better poet is to engender these effects from the very structure of events (40). 6 Again, originary analysis points to how this, one of the most influential of Aristotles literary opinions, can be understood as an attempt to reconcile what increasingly appeared to be the potentially mutual exclusiveness of aesthetic contemplation and ritual participation.
The non-instinctual attention of the periphery toward the central object at the originary scene must be, at least initially, captured and sustained (for however brief a time) through the eyes. That is, peripheral identification with the central figure is first visual and then replayed on each individuals internal, imaginary scene of representation. For this reason, ritual retains a primarily visual orientation. Thus, to define aesthetic excellence as that which resists the strict mimetic conservatism of ritual is to disconnect even more radically art from its violent origins. Similarly, Aristotles recommendation against reliance on the deus ex machina arises not merely from the organicism of his concept of dramatic plot, but from his perception that the proper phenomenal model for tragedy is not ritual but revelation.
The poorest plots, he writes, are those that are contrived by the poet, such as that of Iphigenia, where Orestes says what the poet, rather than the plot, wants him to say in the recognition of his sister. By contrast, the most artistic plots are those that develop naturally but unexpectedly. Ritual is the opposite of revelation, writes Gans in Science and Faith (16). Nothing new must occur there; the only evolution the rite undergoes is the gradual draining away of the truth it was its task to preserve. Rites die and are replaced by others, keepers of new revelations. But these revelations themselves never occur within the framework of ritual; their privileged locus is the individual imagination, whose intuitions are tested only after the fact by the community (16-17).
Aristotle thus anticipates Gans in identifying some of the ways in which the aesthetic scenes escape from ritual conservatism enables it to become an important locus for the discovery of fundamental human truths. The durability of Aristotles theory therefore results neither from historic accident nor scholarly conspiracy: discovering that an anthropologically-grounded theory of the sign could sidestep Platos fears about art initiating the contagion of conflictive mimesis enables the classical aesthetic eventually to achieve its logical end point: the exploration the scene of representation qua scene. Aristotles achievement comes not, however, from merely denying the validity of Platos intuited connection of representation and crisis.
Both thinkers recognize, as Gans has put it, that [t]he institution of art constitutes an intermediary third term between the minimal institution of language and the maximal one of ritual, and that [l]anguage and ritual are each in their own way coercive (Originary Thinking, 122). Poetry, according to Plato, has ties to the more communally coercive (and therefore threatening) institution of ritual; for Aristotle, it is more closely allied with the individually coercive institution of language. It is significant, however, that Aristotles attempt to rid the aesthetic scene of its Platonic threats never fully succeeds; as Gans writes, [t]hroughout history, Platos qualms about the subversive nature of art alternate with the cathartic claims of Aristotle (Originary Thinking 136).
Later literary theorists, especially Horace and Longinus, as we will seewhile they followed Aristotles lead in centering their discussions around mimesis, found themselves having to steer between the Scylla of arts violent origins and the Charybdis of the emotional lassitude of a scenic center devoid of its specifically sacred power. Although, as Gans argues, the relative importance of the Platonic and Aristotelian attitudes depends upon the balance of centrality and decentralization within a given society (Originary Thinking 136), the most famous ancient literary critics maintained the belief that the positions were interchangeable by falling into sacred ambivalence: the unwillingness to further Aristotles desacralization of the aesthetic scene.