Apparatus Spotting palette 1% starch Concentrated solution 0.25%-1. 25% Pipettes Iodine Test tube Test tube rack Timer Method 1. Put 2 drops of iodine in to each dimple on the spotting tray. Keep pipettes separated to prevent cross-contamination and making sure you use the same pipette for the same job. 2. Collect water from the water bath and place the enzymes on it for a couple of minutes to get the enzymes working. 3. In the meantime, mix starch and amylase of 0. 25%. 4. Put 2 drops of solution into the dimples which contain iodine. Start the timer. Every 20 seconds put the concentrated solution in to the dimple containing iodine.
5. Watch for the change of colour; form brown to black. Stop the timer once the colour has changed. 6. Record the time taken for the starch to convert in to sugar. Make sure it is concentrated in to seconds. 7. Repeat the experiment for 0. 5%, 0. 75%, 1% and 1. 25&. Fair test Keep the same amount of solution. Put in drops of the same amount-2 drops. Keep using the same pipettes for the same thing. Measure the time of the product that the reaction took. Measure the amount of drops you use. Change the solution concentration. Change the pipette for different things.
For example, do not use the same pipette for the iodine and the solution. Safety Make sure you wear goggles at all times during the experiments. The iodine is an irritant. Watch out if it goes on your clothes as the stain is impossible to remove. Handle with care when taking the water from the water bath, watch out in case you burn your hands. Results Amylase % Conclusion Thee results show me that the increase in concentration provides an increase in rate per gram.
The reason for this to happen is that as you increase the concentration within the solution, more energy is provided to the reacting particles. Hence, there are more collisions per seconds which allows the whole reaction to proceed quicker. My prediction was correct. The higher the concentration of the enzyme, the faster the reaction. Also my other prediction was also fairly correct.
If you double the concentration, you double the speed. The only reaction this was fairly correct because the actual experiment might have had mistakes which might have affected the results. If there were not as many mistakes, I think that my theory would have practically worked. There were a few anomalies in our graphs. This might refer to our results. Our results were the quickest in reacting. This might have made a huge difference. This affects our results and makes it more in accurate and unrealistic. Evaluation I can see there are inaccuracys in my results.
This can be seen on the experiment itself, the results we got and the graph. The problem that caused this in the experiment was mainly human errors. The simplest error caused a huge difference. We varied our mistakes; some of them were the amount of drops put into the spotting tray. Others maybe cross-contamination, luckily this happened on rare occasions. Other faults were using different iodine solution. They all varied strengths and came out in different colours. If we had enough supply of the same solution, there would definitely be no problem with the iodine.
To prevent cross- contamination, we could have used labels on the pipettes and other instruments. We could also have special pipettes to allow certain amount of drops. The other problem was time, if we had enough time, we would be able to repeat the procedures enough to get a decent average. For a further investigation and to support my conclusion, I will have a second method. To produce this evidence, I will have to produce an investigation to produce the similar results. The things that we need to keep in mind are that we had problems with the colour. To resolve this, I will change the enzyme.
The substrate I will use is a chemical metabolic waste known as hydrogen peroxide. It is produced by every cell. It is catalyse that reacts with the toxin to make water and oxygen. The chemical formula is: 2h2o2>H2o+o2 This will prove my conclusion because as the enzyme reacts with the hydrogen peroxide, two substances are created. They are water and oxygen. The oxygen will go through the pipe in to the water and up the measuring cylinder. This will show is how much oxygen is collected and measure it with the cylinder of how much oxygen is collected up.