The Perceptual Process:
Perception is composed of six processes:
Reacting to stimuli
The process of receiving stimuli:
It is received through five sensory organs i.e, vision, hearing, smell, touch and taste.
Stimuli may be external or internal.
A) External Factors Influencing Selection: nature: visual or audio 1) Intensity: higher intensity objects receive more attention 2) Size: an object with a larger size receives more attention than smaller one 3) Contrast: external stimuli stands out against the background 4) Motion/ Movement: Moving objects receive more attention that the still objects. 7) Repetition: repeated external stimulus is more attention drawing than a single one. 8) Novelty and familiarity: New objects in familiar setting or familiar objects in new setting. B) Internal Factors Influencing Selection:
1) Learning and Perception
2) Motivation and Perception
3) Personality and Perception
Process of organizing:
a) Figure ground
b) Perceptual similarity: similarity, proximity, closure and continuity.
c) Perceptual constancy: gives a sense of stability in the changing world.
1) Shape constancy: eg. Pot
2) Size constancy: objects moved farther away, we tend to see it invariant size.
3) Colour constancy
Though people are exposed to several stimuli, they tend to select only a few at a given point of time, this is perceptual selectivity
When the stimuli is so subtle that an individual may not even be conscious that he is exposed to some stimulus.
FACTORS INFUENCING PERCEPTION:
* The Perciever
* The Target
* The Situation
Emphasizes on the subsequent activities that take place in the perceptual process after a stimulus is received. 1. Figure ground : Percieved objects are separated from their general background by the perceiver. 2. Perceptual grouping: Closure (person may sometimes perceive a whole, where it doesnt exist) * Continuity(Limited to continuous pattern)
3. Perceptual Constancy: The perception of elements like size, shape, color, brightness of an object remains constant and doesnt change for one individual to another 4. Perceptual Context: It provides meaning and value to objects, events, situation and other people in the environment *Different meaning in different situations.
5. Perceptual defense: A person may establish a defense against some stimuli or situation because they may be clashing with his personal values or culture or may be threatening.
* Modification and distortion
* Change in perception
* Recognition but refusal to change
Process of checking:
Checking by introspection.
Checking about the interpretation with others.
Process of reacting:
Shall indulge in some action in relation to his perception.
Factors Influencing Perception
* Charecteristics of the perceiver
* Charecteristics of the perceived
* Charecteristics of the situation
SOCIAL PERCEPTION: (how an individual perceives others)
* Charecteristics that influence the perception:
* Understanding of ones own behavior
* Personal charecteristics of a person
* Self- esteem
* Not on one single skill
1. Attribution: Refers to the process in which an individual assigns causes to behavior he conceives. Factors such as status, intentions and consequences. -Disposal attribution: (Behaviour is affected by the charecteristics of a person)
2. Stereotyping: It is a process of judging someone on the basis of ones perception of the group to which the perception belongs. It provides a shortcut to predicting behavior. 3. Halo effect: It refers to the tendency of forming a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic. Need not always be a positive characteristic. An individual may be down rated based on the negative evaluation of his or her behaviors. This process is called Rusty Halo or Horns Effect.