Perception Definition Essay

Published: 2020-01-31 07:41:56
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Category: Perception

Type of paper: Essay

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Meaning: Perception refers to the way we try to understand the world around us. Definition: Perception is the process by which an individual selects, organizes and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture. Perception can also be defined as the process by which an individual selects, organizes and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the environment in which he lives. Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

The Perceptual Process:

Perception is composed of six processes:
Receiving
Selecting
Organizing
Interpreting
Checking
Reacting to stimuli

The process of receiving stimuli:
It is received through five sensory organs i.e, vision, hearing, smell, touch and taste.

Stimuli may be external or internal.

A) External Factors Influencing Selection: nature: visual or audio 1) Intensity: higher intensity objects receive more attention 2) Size: an object with a larger size receives more attention than smaller one 3) Contrast: external stimuli stands out against the background 4) Motion/ Movement: Moving objects receive more attention that the still objects. 7) Repetition: repeated external stimulus is more attention drawing than a single one. 8) Novelty and familiarity: New objects in familiar setting or familiar objects in new setting. B) Internal Factors Influencing Selection:

1) Learning and Perception
2) Motivation and Perception
3) Personality and Perception

Process of organizing:

a) Figure ground
b) Perceptual similarity: similarity, proximity, closure and continuity.
c) Perceptual constancy: gives a sense of stability in the changing world.
1) Shape constancy: eg. Pot
2) Size constancy: objects moved farther away, we tend to see it invariant size.
3) Colour constancy

PERCEPTUAL SELECTIVITY:
Though people are exposed to several stimuli, they tend to select only a few at a given point of time, this is perceptual selectivity
SUBLIMINAL PROCESS:
When the stimuli is so subtle that an individual may not even be conscious that he is exposed to some stimulus.

FACTORS INFUENCING PERCEPTION:
* The Perciever
* The Target
* The Situation

PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION:
Emphasizes on the subsequent activities that take place in the perceptual process after a stimulus is received. 1. Figure ground : Percieved objects are separated from their general background by the perceiver. 2. Perceptual grouping: Closure (person may sometimes perceive a whole, where it doesnt exist) * Continuity(Limited to continuous pattern)

* Proximity
* Similarity

3. Perceptual Constancy: The perception of elements like size, shape, color, brightness of an object remains constant and doesnt change for one individual to another 4. Perceptual Context: It provides meaning and value to objects, events, situation and other people in the environment *Different meaning in different situations.

5. Perceptual defense: A person may establish a defense against some stimuli or situation because they may be clashing with his personal values or culture or may be threatening.
* Denial
* Modification and distortion
* Change in perception
* Recognition but refusal to change

Process of checking:
Checking by introspection.
Checking about the interpretation with others.
Process of reacting:
Shall indulge in some action in relation to his perception.

Factors Influencing Perception
* Charecteristics of the perceiver
* Charecteristics of the perceived
* Charecteristics of the situation

SOCIAL PERCEPTION: (how an individual perceives others)
* Charecteristics that influence the perception:
* Understanding of ones own behavior
* Personal charecteristics of a person
* Self- esteem
* Not on one single skill

1. Attribution: Refers to the process in which an individual assigns causes to behavior he conceives. Factors such as status, intentions and consequences. -Disposal attribution: (Behaviour is affected by the charecteristics of a person)

-Situational attribution.

2. Stereotyping: It is a process of judging someone on the basis of ones perception of the group to which the perception belongs. It provides a shortcut to predicting behavior. 3. Halo effect: It refers to the tendency of forming a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic. Need not always be a positive characteristic. An individual may be down rated based on the negative evaluation of his or her behaviors. This process is called Rusty Halo or Horns Effect.

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