This trade is mostly dubious. So, the unscrupulous elements have joined this trade of high profits. Due to shortage of supply of the parts, they sell at extraordinary premium. The donors are mostly destitute and the recipients are rich. Those who sell the parts do it out of compulsion and in some cases coercion. Economic necessity is also the dominant factor as for those who are willing to sell their body parts. But the important poser is should a human being seek extension of his life on borrowed parts? The answer seems to be in the affirmative. Reason 1: More demand, less supply.
Seeking extension of ones life on borrowed parts is no sin. But how you seek, what you seek, is important. If you get the organ legally from a willing donor, there is nothing wrong. Such an action is twice-blessed. It blesses the donor as well as the recipient. Otherwise, the supply base of the organs needs a careful scrutiny. The demand for organs like kidney is very high. For those with a serious kidney problem, it is a life or death situation. In such a critical condition, it should be possible for a donor to sell one of his kidneys to save the patient. Such donations could either be with love or for cost.
In cities, more than 95% of the kidney transplants are reported to have the commercial angle. Even in such cases, if the donation of kidney is done willingly with full knowledge of the consequences, there should be no legal bar for such an action. One is saving a life, the question of legal action arises only when one is out to injure, hurt or destroy a life. But the other side of the story makes a pathetic reading. According to a report, The paid donors of India might fare better when compared to the Chinese prisoners who have their organs removed upon death.
According to Human Rights Watch/Asia, about 2,000-3,000 organs a year are cut from the bodies of executed (as well as not-quite-dead) prisoners. The transplant service is readily available to top high ranking Party officials and cash-paying foreigners. In Hong Kong, for instance, only 50-60 kidneys are replaced each year, while the waiting list for transplant is around 500. (Body parts¦) Reason 2: It is a trade like the one in any other commodity. Many countries have clear written laws that prohibit the sale of organs. But why blame the trade of organs? Unscrupulous trade can be in any commodity.
It is there in medicines, in cereals, in machinery parts, currency notes”with the original, there goes the duplicate! By manufacturing and selling spurious drugs, one is definitely harming people. But not by selling organs! Someone is bound to get the benefit”most probably his life. A school of thought strongly believes that the corpse, once with the pathologists should be used to the best advantage of a human being or humanity. The government hospitals, medical establishments, and those who are waiting for donations (paid or unpaid) need to get the benefit!
Why ethics should stand in between such kind and humanitarian acts? Reason 3:-Human Rights: Apart from considering the issue from the angles of trade and environment, the question of human rights is also involved. The alleged profit seeking by the doctors is one thing. Doctors seek profit in other types of operations also, where organ is not an issue. It is also difficult to challenge their actions morally. They are acting to save the life of an individual. If poor individuals sell their body parts to fight poverty, they are within their rights to do so.
If the surgeons remove tissues without reservations from the dead body, they do it for good scientific experiments and for the overall welfare of humanity. Conclusion: If one willfully commits the murder, he is liable for punishment as per the governing law. If a soldier shoots at the enemy and kills during the war, he is given gallantry award. Similar is the case with the sale and purchase of parts of the body. But clear ethical guidelines must be framed for such sale, even when the sale is legally permitted.
The rights for the organs after a person dies should be clearly defined. International, trade of such parts must be done under a charter formulated and accepted by member countries of United Nations and World Health Organizations. With the rapidly growing demand for the organs, it is foolish to think that the sale/purchase of the organs can be stopped by legal means. It is no sin to seek extension of life on borrowed parts if ones action is within the framework of ethics and law. More so, if it is accepted by the society!