According Meredith Belbin, who is a British researcher and management theorist best known for his work on management teams, there were nine team roles and he categorized them into three groups: Action Oriented, People Oriented, and Thought Oriented. Each team role is associated with typical behavioral and interpersonal strengths and it brings its own perspective on what action shoud be taken.
Belbin also defined characteristic weaknesses that tend to accompany each team role.
Action Oriented Roles include shaper (SH), implementer (IMP) and completer-finisher (CF). For instance, a shaper is people who challenge the team to improve, while a implementer is people who get things done and a completer-finisher is people who see that projects are completed thoroughly. On the other hand, People Oriented Roles admit coordinator (CO), team worker (TW) and resource investigator (RI).
For exemple, a coordinator is the one who take on the traditional team-leader role and have also been referred to as the chairmen, while a TW is the people who provide support and make sure that people within the team are working together effectively and a RI is innovative and curious. And Thought Oriented Roles let in plant (PL), monitor-evaluator (ME) and specialist (SP). The plant is the creative innovator who comes up with new ideas and approaches, while a monitor-evaluators is best at analyzing and evaluating ideas that other people (often Plants) come up with and a specialist is people who have specialized knowledge that is needed to get the job done.
Diversity of roles is an essential element of successful teamwork because everyone has a clear understanding of aims and objectives and there is a
good balance of skills, abilities and aspirations, team members have a clear understanding of each individuals role in achieving overall team objectives.